The biology of Ceratozetes cisalpinus Berlese, Scheloribates laevigatus Koch, and Oppia neerlandica Oudemans (Oribatei), with a description of all stages
1962 - Volume: 4 Issue: 1 pages: 101-137
ecology and habits
All stages of Ceratozetes cisalpinus, Scheloribates laevigatus, and Oppia neerlandica are described and illustrated. At 25 °C, about 95 % relative humidity, and with what was found to be an optimum diet, O. neerlandica took 12 days, C. cisalpinus 24 days, and S. laevigatus 54 days to go from egg hatch to adult emergence. Under the above conditions and with the culturing methods used here, over 95 % of all eggs deposited resulted in reproducing adults. Egg production, the microenvironment of the immature stages, growth and molting, movement and motion, natural enemies, and the bioclimatics of these three species were investigated. C. cisalpinus cerotegument formation was investigated. Water is postulated as the most important means ·of dispersal for sod inhabiting oribatids. The mechanics of C. cisalpinus spermatophoric reproduction, and the influence of various physical factors and the presence of both sexes on spermatophoric reproduction were investigated. Second batch egg deposition diapause in C. cisalpinus is suspected. Parthenogenesis was definitely proven in O. neerlandica. C. cisalpimts could be reared or an artificial diet, lichen, or mushroom; S. laevigatus on a mushroomlichen combination; and O. neerlandica on fungal hyphae, lichen, or mushroom. By means of aseptic culturing, it was determineâ. that newly hatched larvae of C. cisalpinus required growing fungal hyphae for initial feeding. Albinism occurred in C. cisalpinus, and its occurrence was partially correlated vvith overcrowded cultures.
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