The phenology of the tree is only represented by 4 stages:

  1. budburst
  2. leaves expension end
  3. leaves fall

Time of budding is characterized by a thermal time, the duration of foliar expansion is fixed, and leaf fall occurs when the mean temperature over the last X days goes below a threshold. All these parameters are fixed for each tree species.

For the crop, the key steps of development are

  1. emergence
  2. flowering (which stops or doesn’t stop vegetative development depending on the crop)
  3. senescence

The development is controled by thermal time, modulated, depending on the species, by photoperiod and/or periods of cold, for example winter cereals need a period of cold to trigger flowering.

Simulation de plantations agroforestières