Contrasted ecological repartition of the Northern Fowl Mite Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata : Macronyssidae) and the Chicken Red Mite Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae)
2010 - Volume: 50 Issue: 2 pages: 207-219
The two hematophagous mite species, the Northern Fowl Mite Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Macronyssidae) and the Chicken Red Mite Dermanyssus gallinae (Dermanyssidae), are considered serious pests in fowl farms in the USA and in Europe respectively. However, neither of them seems to be restricted to either of these two continents according to sparse records in the literature. The aim here was to explore the respective ecological repartitions of these two species in France and to compare them with data from the USA. We thus analyzed hematophagous mesostigmatid mites collected in France in natura, in orchards agroecosystems, in pet bird and fowl farms and compared DNA sequences from some North American and French mites in both species. It is remarkable that O. sylviarum has been recurrently encountered in bird nests from France and yet been absent from French layer farms, whereas it is a serious pest in layer farms in the USA. On the other hand, O. sylviarum has been isolated from ornamental bird farms in France (canary, pheasant). This suggests either a strong impact of different farming practices between continents or a colonization in process in Europe. It remains to be explored whether the opposite applies to D. gallinae in the USA. Lastly, mites belonging to the special lineage D. gallinae L1 have been isolated from North American pigeons providing mt and nDNA sequences very close to French L1 isolates. This confirms the specific status of this cryptic entity.
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