Effects of short exposure periods to low temperatures on the biology of Tetranychus urticaeAbukhashim, N.K. and Luff, M.L.
1997 - Volume: 38 Issue: 3 pages: 255-263
Date published: 1997-12-15
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Keywords: Tetranychus urticae; survival at low temperatures; development cycle
All stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) were subjected to short periods (0-16 hours) of exposure to low temperatures (0, -5 and -10 degrees C), followed by rearing at 20 degrees C. Adult survivorship was greater than that of the juvenile stages, but there was no difference between survival rates of the two sexes; duration of exposure had more effect than the actual temperature experienced. Many surviving juvenile mites did not successfully complete their development to adult: 8 hours at 0 degrees C was sufficient to prevent almost all development. The longevity of surviving treated adults was reduced, but there was little reduction in the adult longevity of surviving treated juvenile stages. Both duration and level of low temperature exposure affected the fecundity of treated adults. Treatment at the deutonymph stage-also affected the fecundity of the resulting adults. Male fertility was unaffected by low temperature exposure, except possibly at the longest exposure durations. Development of the surviving treated immature stages was retarded; the temperature experienced had more effect than the duration of exposure.
Varroa destructor (Varroidae) on a honey bee. Low temperature -Scanning electron microscopy photograph.
Material collected and fixed for LT-SEM: J. Pettis, USDA-ARS-Bee Lab. and R. Ochoa, USDA-ARS-SEL;
LT-SEM photo: E. Erbe and C. Pooley, USDA-ARS-CEMU © USDA;
Petrobia harti (Tetranychidae) © INRA - Alain Migeon;
Dermanyssus gallinae (Dermanysssidae) © Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon – Lise Roy;
Adult Ixodes sp. (Ixodidae) engorging on an Atlantic puffin Fratercula arctica © Andy Darrington;
Panonychus ulmi (Tetranychidae): hatching of a winter egg © Université de Lausanne – Centre de microscopie électronique – Cazelles
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