Tetranychidae - Bryobiinae - Bryobiini

Bryobia praetiosa Koch, 1836. Koch & Herrich-Schäffer (1835): fig. 8.

Bryobia praetiosa Koch, 1835. Koch & Herrich-Schäffer (1835): fig. 8. Type host: Poaceae sp.. Type locality: Germany.


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Summary:

  • Nomenclature
  • Hosts
  • Distribution
  • Distribution Map (open a new window)


  • Nomenclature:

    Bryobia humeralis Halbert, 1923. Synonym description. Halbert (1923): 385. Type host: Unknown. Notes: The species was described from large number of mites on a wall and from moss..
    Bryobia humeralis Halbert, 1923. Synonymy by. Pritchard & Baker (1955): 30.

    Bryobia latitans Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1966. Synonym description. Livshits & Mitrofanov (1966): .
    Bryobia latitans Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1966. Synonymy by. Livshits & Mitrofanov (1971): 59.

    Bryobia praetiosa Koch, 1835. Valid nomenclatural act. Koch & Herrich-Schäffer (1835): fig. 8. Type host: Poaceae sp.. Type locality: Germany.
    Bryobia (Bryobia) praetiosa Koch, 1836. New combination. Livshits & Mitrofanov (1971): 59.
    Bryobia praetiosa Koch, 1836. New combination. Meyer (1974): 20.

    Bryobia pratensis Garman, 1885. Synonym description. Garman (1885): 73. Type locality: Australia.
    Bryobia pratensis Garman, 1885. Synonymy by. Pritchard & Baker (1955): 28.

    Bryobia pseudopraetiosa Wainstein, 1956. Synonym description. Wainstein (1956): 385. Type locality: Kazakhstan.
    Bryobia pseudopraetiosa Wainstein, 1956. Synonymy by. Wainstein (1960): 102.

    Bryobia speciosa Koch, 1838. Synonym description. Berlese (1888): 10. Type host: Unknown. Type locality: Germany.
    Bryobia speciosa Koch, 1838. Synonymy by. Pritchard & Baker (1955): 28.

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    Hosts (288 results):


    Acanthaceae: Adhatoda sp. [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Dicliptera clinopodia [Meyer (1987)]; Dicliptera paniculata; Peristrophe bicalyculata [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Peristrophe sp. [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)].
    Adoxaceae: Sambucus chinensis.
    Amaranthaceae: Achyranthes aspera [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Alternanthera sp. [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Atriplex cinerea [Meyer (1987)]; Atriplex patula [Marić, Marčić, Petanović, et al. (2018)]; Atriplex suberecta [Meyer (1987)]; Chenopodium album [Tuttle & Baker (1964)]; Chenopodium murale [Tuttle & Baker (1964)]; Chenopodium sp. [Migeon (2015)]; Dysphania ambrosioides [Zaher, Gomaa & El-Enany (1982)]; Spinacia oleracea.
    Amaryllidaceae: Narcissus pseudonarcissus [Carmona (1970)]; Narcissus sp. [McGregor (1950)].
    Anacardiaceae: Pistacia vera.
    Apiaceae: Aegopodium podagraria; Apium graveolens [Marić, Marčić, Petanović, et al. (2018)]; Centella asiatica [Urueta (1975)]; Chaerophyllum sp. [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Daucus carota.
    Apocynaceae: Nerium oleander [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)].
    Araceae: Arisaema triphyllum; Arum maculatum; Colocasia esculenta; Zantedeschia aethiopica [Meyer (1974)].
    Araliaceae: Hedera colchica; Hedera helix [Geijskes (1939); Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)].
    Betulaceae: Alnus nitida [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)].
    Boraginaceae: Echium sp.; Heliotropium curassavicum [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)].
    Brassicaceae: Alyssum sp. [Carmona (1970)]; Arabis sp. [Carmona (1970)]; Aubrieta deltoidea [Carmona (1970)]; Barbarea vulgaris; Brassica juncea [Tuttle & Baker (1964)]; Brassica nigra [McGregor (1950)]; Brassica oleracea; Brassica rapa [Meyer (1974)]; Brassica sp. [Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Tuttle & Baker (1964)]; Capsella sp. [McGregor (1950)]; Hesperis matronalis [Carmona (1970)]; Iberis amara [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Lepidium didymum [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Matthiola sp. [Tuttle, Baker & Abbatiello (1976)]; Raphanus raphanistrum [Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Tuttle & Baker (1964)]; Rapistrum rugosum; Sinapis arvensis; Sisymbrium irio.
    Bryophyta: Bryophyta [Flechtmann & Baker (1970)].
    Buxaceae: Buxus sp. [Reeves (1963)]; Sarcococca sp. [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)].
    Campanulaceae: Campanula medium [Ehara (1956)].
    Cannabaceae: Humulus lupulus.
    Caprifoliaceae: Lonicera sp. [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Lonicera xylosteum.
    Caryophyllaceae: Dianthus caryophyllus; Dianthus sp. [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Gypsophila paniculata; Saponaria sp.; Silene sp.; Spergula arvensis [Miller (1966)]; Spergularia sp. [Tuttle & Baker (1964)]; Stellaria media.
    Compositae: Ageratum conyzoides; Ageratum houstonianum; Ambrosia artemisiifolia [Marić, Marčić, Petanović, et al. (2018)]; Arctium minus [Tuttle & Baker (1968)]; Arctotheca calendula [Meyer (1987)]; Artemisia herba-alba [Zaher, Gomaa & El-Enany (1982)]; Artemisia nova [Tuttle & Baker (1976)]; Artemisia tridentata [Tuttle & Baker (1976)]; Artemisia vulgaris [Marić, Marčić, Petanović, et al. (2018)]; Calendula arvensis [Ros, V., Breeuwer, J., Menken, S. (2008)]; Calendula officinalis [Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Tuttle & Baker (1968)]; Centaurea cyanus [Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Tuttle & Baker (1964)]; Centaurea imperialis [Carmona (1970)]; Chrysanthemum coronarium [Vacante (1983)]; Chrysanthemum sp. [Tuttle & Baker (1968); Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974); Tuttle & Baker (1976)]; Chrysothamnus nauseosus [Tuttle & Baker (1976)]; Chrysothamnus sp. [Tuttle & Baker (1976)]; Cirsium sp. [Georghiou (1959)]; Conyza canadensis; Cosmos bipinnatus; Helianthus annuus [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974); Zaher, Gomaa & El-Enany (1982)]; Heterotheca subaxillaris [Tuttle & Baker (1964)]; Oncosiphon suffruticosum [Meyer (1987)]; Petasites albus; Senecio burchellii [Meyer (1974)]; Senecio cineraria [Meyer (1987)]; Senecio niveus [Meyer (1987)]; Sonchus oleraceus [Meyer (1974); Vacante (1983)]; Tagetes sp. [Tuttle & Baker (1968)]; Tagetes tenuifolia [Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Taraxacum officinale [Marić, Marčić, Petanović, et al. (2018)]; Tussilago farfara; Urospermum sp. [Georghiou (1959)].
    Convolvulaceae: Convolvulus arvensis [Tuttle & Baker (1964); Zaher, Gomaa & El-Enany (1982)]; Ipomoea indica; Ipomoea sp. [Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Tuttle & Baker (1964)].
    Cornaceae: Cornus canadensis.
    Crassulaceae: Crassula sp. [Carmona (1970)].
    Cucurbitaceae: Citrullus lanatus; Cucumis melo [McGregor (1950); Ehara (1999)]; Cucumis sativus [Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Tuttle & Baker (1964)]; Cucumis sp. [Carmona (1970)]; Cucurbita moschata; Cucurbita pepo [Tuttle & Baker (1968)]; Cucurbita sp. [Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Tuttle & Baker (1968)].
    Cupressaceae: Cupressus sempervirens [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Juniperus sp. [Tuttle & Baker (1976)]; Juniperus virginiana [Kontschan, J. and Ripka, G. (2017)]; Thuja sp..
    Dennstaedtiaceae: Pteridium aquilinum [Tuttle & Baker (1964)].
    Ericaceae: Rhododendron roseum; Vaccinium myrtillus.
    Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia cyparissias [Marić, Marčić, Petanović, et al. (2018)]; Euphorbia hirta.
    Fagaceae: Quercus sp..
    Geraniaceae: Geranium sp. [Georghiou (1959); Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)].
    Grossulariaceae: Ribes alpinum; Ribes divaricatum; Ribes inerme [Tuttle & Baker (1976)]; Ribes rubrum [Thomas (1896)]; Ribes uva-crispa.
    Iridaceae: Iris sp. [McGregor (1950); Ehara (1956)].
    Juglandaceae : Juglans regia [McGregor (1950)].
    Juncaceae: Juncus acutus [Zaher, Gomaa & El-Enany (1982)].
    Lamiaceae : Glechoma sp.; Salvia pratensis; Salvia sp. [Carmona (1970)].
    Leguminosae: Crotalaria sp. [Estebanes-Gonzalez & Baker (1968)]; Indigofera heterantha [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Lens culinaris; Lotus sp. [Ros, V., Breeuwer, J., Menken, S. (2008)]; Medicago polymorpha [Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Georghiou (1959); Carmona (1970)]; Medicago sativa [McGregor (1950); Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Rossi Simons (1961); Tuttle & Baker (1964); Hatzinikolis (1968); Hatzinikolis (1969); Tuttle & Baker (1976); Papaioannou-Souliotis, Ragusa Di Chiara & Tsolakis (1994); Badieritakis, Fantinou, Emmanouel (2014)]; Medicago suffruticosa [Estebanes-Gonzalez & Baker (1968)]; Melilotus indicus [Tuttle & Baker (1968); Tuttle & Baker (1976)]; Phaseolus vulgaris; Pisum sativum [McGregor (1950); Rossi Simons (1961)]; Robinia pseudoacacia; Stylosanthes guianensis [Tuttle, Baker & Sales (1977)]; Trifolium alexandrinum [Zaher, Gomaa & El-Enany (1982)]; Trifolium dubium [Tuttle & Baker (1964)]; Trifolium pratense; Trifolium repens [Tuttle & Baker (1964); Lee Goff (1986); Matsuda, Morishita, Hinomoto, et al. (2014)]; Trifolium sp. [Garman (1940); McGregor (1950); Anderson and Morgan (1958); Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Miller (1966); Hatzinikolis (1968); Hatzinikolis (1969)]; Vicia cracca; Vicia faba [Rossi Simons (1961)]; Vicia sepium [Eyndhoven (1957)].
    Malvaceae: Alcea rosea [Georghiou (1959); Zaher (1984)]; Hibiscus sabdariffa; Malva hispanica; Malva parviflora [Georghiou (1959); Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974); Ben-David, Ueckermann, Gerson (2013)]; Malva sp. [McGregor (1950); Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Reck (1959); Ben-David, Melamed, Gerson, et al. (2007)]; Sida schimperiana [Toroitich, Ueckermann, Theron, et al. (2009)]; Sida sp.; Sphaeralcea bonariensis [Meyer (1987)]; Tilia sp. [Geijskes (1939)].
    Marantaceae: Calathea sp..
    Melanthiaceae: Trillium sp. [Carmona (1970)].
    Meliaceae: Trichilia emetica [Meyer (1970)].
    Moraceae: Ficus carica; Ficus palmata [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)].
    Oleaceae: Jasminum sambac.
    Oxalidaceae: Oxalis sp..
    Papaveraceae: Chelidonium majus; Dicentra cucullaria [Carmona (1970)]; Eschscholzia californica [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Fumaria indica [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Lamprocapnos spectabilis [Carmona (1970)]; Papaver sp. [Carmona (1970)].
    Passifloraceae: Passiflora edulis [Meyer (1974)]; Passiflora quadrangularis.
    Pinaceae: Abies pindrow [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Picea engelmannii [McGregor (1950)]; Picea glauca [Kontschan, J. and Ripka, G. (2017)]; Pinus cembroides [Estebanes-Gonzalez & Baker (1968)]; Pinus douglasiana [Estebanes-Gonzalez & Baker (1968)]; Pinus pinceana [Estebanes-Gonzalez & Baker (1968)]; Pinus ponderosa [Estebanes-Gonzalez & Baker (1968)]; Pinus rigida [Reeves (1963)]; Pinus sp. [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974); Gupta (1984)]; Pinus wallichiana [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)].
    Plantaginaceae: plantago insularis [Tuttle & Baker (1964)].
    Platanaceae: Platanus occidentalis [McGregor (1950)].
    Poaceae: Aegilops cylindrica [Tuttle & Baker (1968)]; Agropyron desertorum [Tuttle & Baker (1976)]; Arrhenatherum elatius [McGregor (1950)]; Bromus catharticus [Meyer (1974)]; Bromus inermis; Bromus sp. [Meyer (1987)]; Cenchrus echinatus [Tuttle & Baker (1964)]; Chloris gayana [Toroitich, Ueckermann, Theron, et al. (2009)]; Cortaderia selloana [Tuttle & Baker (1968)]; Cynodon dactylon [Zaher, Gomaa & El-Enany (1982); Alatawi, Kamran (2018)]; Dactylis glomerata; Elymus repens; Elymus smithii [Tuttle & Baker (1976)]; Elymus sp.; Festuca rubra; Holcus lanatus [Weeks & Breeuwer (2001); Ros, V., Breeuwer, J., Menken, S. (2008)]; Hordeum arizonicum [Tuttle & Baker (1968)]; Hordeum murinum [Marić, Marčić, Petanović, et al. (2018)]; Hordeum vulgare [McGregor (1950)]; Lolium perenne [Tuttle & Baker (1964)]; Lolium sp. [Bibby & Tuttle (1959)]; Muhlenbergia peruviana [Tuttle & Baker (1968)]; Pennisetum clandestinum [Garrett & Haramoto (1967)]; Phleum pratense; Poaceae sp. [Koch & Herrich-Schäffer (1835); Morgan (1960); Rossi Simons (1961); Vacante (1983); Kontschan, J. and Ripka, G. (2017); Alatawi, Kamran (2018)]; Saccharum officinarum; Secale cereale [Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Tuttle & Baker (1968)]; Stenotaphrum secundatum [Lee Goff (1986)]; Triticum aestivum [McGregor (1950)].
    Polemoniaceae: Phlox sp. [Carmona (1970)]; Polemonium sp..
    Polygonaceae: Rumex crispus [Tuttle & Baker (1964)].
    Portulacaceae: Portulaca oleracea [Tuttle & Baker (1964)].
    Primulaceae: Cyclamen sp.; Primula sp. [Carmona (1970)].
    Ranunculaceae: Ranunculus aconitifolius [Marić, Marčić, Petanović, et al. (2018)]; Ranunculus distans; Ranunculus lactus [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)].
    Rhamnaceae: Rhamnus virgata [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Ziziphus jujuba.
    Rosaceae: Acaena sp. [André (1947)]; Amygdalus triloba; Cotoneaster bacillaris [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Crataegus monogyna [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Cydonia oblonga [Rossi Simons (1961)]; Eriobotrya japonica; Fragaria vesca [Marić, Marčić, Petanović, et al. (2018)]; Fragaria x ananassa [Ehara (1956)]; Geum sp.; Malus domestica [McGregor (1950); Ehara (1956); Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Rossi Simons (1961); Silveira-Guido, Carbonell Bruhn, Briozzo (1966); Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Malus pumila [Marić, Marčić, Petanović, et al. (2018)]; Malus sp. [Thewke & Enns (1969)]; Potentilla fragarioides; Prunus amygdalus [Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Georghiou (1959); Rossi Simons (1961)]; Prunus armeniaca [Rossi Simons (1961)]; Prunus avium [McGregor (1950); Rossi Simons (1961)]; Prunus domestica [Rossi Simons (1961); Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974); Gupta & Gupta (1994); Gupta & Chatterjee (1997)]; Prunus persica [McGregor (1950); Rossi Simons (1961); Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Prunus serotina; Pyrus communis [McGregor (1950); Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Rossi Simons (1961); Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974); Gupta & Gupta (1994); Gupta (1995); Gupta & Chatterjee (1997); Marić, Marčić, Petanović, et al. (2018)]; Pyrus sp. [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974); Gupta (1992)]; Rosa sp.; Rubus fruticosus [Marić, Marčić, Petanović, et al. (2018)]; Rubus leucostachys; Sanguisorba sp..
    Rubiaceae: Galium aparine [Miller (1966)]; Galium sp. [Georghiou (1959)]; Lasianthus sp.; Oldenlandia diffusa.
    Rutaceae: Citrus reticulata [Rossi Simons (1961)]; Citrus sinensis [McGregor (1950)]; Citrus sp. [McGregor (1950)].
    Sapindaceae: Acer sp.; Aesculus hippocastanum [Tuttle & Baker (1976)]; Litchi chinensis.
    Sarcobataceae: Sarcobatus vermiculatus [Tuttle & Baker (1976)].
    Scrophulariaceae: Verbascum thapsus [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)].
    Solanaceae: Lycium europaeum [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Solanum dulcamara; Solanum lycopersicum; Solanum melongena; Solanum tuberosum [Meyer (1974); Guanilo, A.D., de Moraes, G.J., Flechtmann, C.H.W., et al. (2012)].
    Sphenocleaceae: Sphenoclea zeylanica.
    Taxaceae: Taxus baccata [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)].
    Thymelaeaceae: Daphne papyracea [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)].
    Tropaeolaceae: Tropaeolum majus.
    Ulmaceae: Ulmus americana [Reeves (1963)]; Ulmus pumila [Ma & Yuan (1981)]; Ulmus sp. [Ehara (1959)].
    Urticaceae: Debregeasia saeneb [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Forsskaolea candida [Meyer (1987)]; Pipturus albidus; Urtica urens [Meyer (1974)].
    Verbenaceae: Duranta erecta [Zaher, Gomaa & El-Enany (1982)]; Verbena sp..
    Violaceae: Viola sp..
    Vitaceae: Vitis vinifera [Ehara (1959)].
    : Unknown [Koch (1838); Halbert (1923)]

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    Distribution (60 results):


    Afrotropical: Kenya [Toroitich, Ueckermann, Theron, et al. (2009)]; South Africa [Meyer (1987)]; Yemen [Meyer (1996)].
    Antarctic: French Southern and Antarctic Lands [André (1947)]; Kerguelen Is. (France) [Cambridge (1876); André (1947)].
    Australasian: Australia [Froggatt (1921); Arthur, A.L., Miller, A.D., Weeks, A.R. (2011)]; Hawaiian Is. (Usa) [Garrett & Haramoto (1967); Lee Goff (1986)]; Midway Is. (Usa) [Lee Goff (1986)]; New Zealand [Roosje & Dinther (1953)]; Tasmania (Australia) [Miller (1966)].
    Nearctic: Canada [Anderson and Morgan (1958); Morgan (1960)]; Greenland [Jorgensen (1934); Makarova (2015)]; Mexico [Beer & Lang (1958)]; United States [Garman (1940); Bibby & Tuttle (1959); Morgan (1960); Tuttle & Baker (1964); Flechtmann & Hunter (1971); Tuttle & Baker (1976)].
    Neotropical: Argentina [Rossi Simons (1961)]; Bolivia [Munro (1954)]; Brazil [Flechtmann & Baker (1970); Paschoal (1970); Flechtmann & Baker (1975); Tuttle, Baker & Sales (1977)]; Colombia [Urueta (1975)]; Costa Rica [Ochoa, Aguilar & Vargas (1991)]; Paraguay [Aranda & Flechtman (1971)]; Peru [Gonzalez & Flechtmann (1977); Guanilo, A.D., de Moraes, G.J., Flechtmann, C.H.W., et al. (2012)]; Uruguay [Silveira-Guido, Carbonell Bruhn, Briozzo (1966)].
    Oriental: China (Oriental) [Ma & Yuan (1981); Wang (1981); Wang (1985)]; India [Menon & Ghai (1968); Gupta (1992); Gupta & Gupta (1994); Gupta (1995); Gupta & Chatterjee (1997)]; Pakistan [Chaudhri, Akbar & Rasool (1974)]; Taiwan [Baker (1975)].
    Palearctic: Austria [Bohm (1954)]; Belgium [Roosje & Dinther (1953)]; China (Palearctic) [Wang (1981); Wang (1985)]; Cyprus [Georghiou (1959)]; Denmark [Roosje & Dinther (1953)]; Egypt [Zaher, Gomaa & El-Enany (1982)]; Finland [Roosje & Dinther (1953)]; France [Migeon (2015)]; Germany [Koch & Herrich-Schäffer (1835); Koch (1838)]; Greece [Hatzinikolis (1968); Hatzinikolis (1969); Hatzinikolis (1986); Hatzinikolis & Emmanouel (1991); Papaioannou-Souliotis, Ragusa Di Chiara & Tsolakis (1994); Badieritakis, Fantinou, Emmanouel (2014)]; Gruziya (Georgia) [Reck (1953)]; Hungary [Bognar (1961); Kontschan, J. and Ripka, G. (2017)]; Iran [Khalil-Manesh (1973); Izadi, Asadabadi, Khanjani, et al. (2010); Beyzavi, Ueckermann, Faraji, et al. (2013)]; Iraq [El-Haidari (1965)]; Ireland - Eire [Sherrard (1926)]; Israel [Ben-David, Melamed, Gerson, et al. (2007); Ben-David, Ueckermann, Gerson (2013)]; Italy [Berlese (1888); Vacante (1983); Bernini, Castagnoli & Nannelli (1995); Ros, V., Breeuwer, J., Menken, S. (2008)]; Japan [Ehara (1956); Matsuda, Morishita, Hinomoto, et al. (2014)]; Kazakhstan [Wainstein (1956); Wainstein (1956); Reck (1959)]; Korea (Rep. South) [Lee (1989)]; Morocco [Saba (1973); El-Jaouani (1988)]; Netherlands [Nesbitt (1954); Vierbergen (1990); Weeks & Breeuwer (2001); Ros, V., Breeuwer, J., Menken, S. (2008)]; Norway [Roosje & Dinther (1953)]; Palestinian Territories [Mumcuoglu, U. (2013)]; Poland [Boczek & Kropczynska (1964)]; Portugal [Carmona (1970)]; Romania [Iacob (1978)]; Saudi Arabia [Alatawi, Kamran (2018)]; Serbia-Montenegro [Marić, Marčić, Petanović, et al. (2018)]; Spain [Carmona (1970)]; Sweden [Trägårdh (1904)]; Switzerland [Mathys (1957)]; Turkey [Duzgunes (1954)]; United Kingdom [Morgan (1960)].

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