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New records of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) in Belgium with an identification key to Belgian species

Döker, Ismail 1 ; Vangansbeke, Dominiek 2 and Merckx, Jonas 3

1✉ Cukurova University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Plant Protection, Acarology Laboratory, Adana, Turkey & Biodiversity Inventory for Conservation NPO (BINCO), Walmersumstraat 44, 3380 Glabbeek, Belgium.
2Biodiversity Inventory for Conservation NPO (BINCO), Walmersumstraat 44, 3380 Glabbeek, Belgium & Biobest N.V., Ilse Velden 18, 2260 Westerlo, Belgium.
3Biodiversity Inventory for Conservation NPO (BINCO), Walmersumstraat 44, 3380 Glabbeek, Belgium & Biobest N.V., Ilse Velden 18, 2260 Westerlo, Belgium.

2022 - Volume: 62 Issue: 4 pages: 1070-1083

https://doi.org/10.24349/yshq-dgl8

Original research

Keywords

Belgium biological control fauna identification key new records predatory mites

Abstract

This study provides five new records of phytoseiid mites; Amblyseius herbicolus, Neoseiulus reductus, Kampimodromus corylosus, Paraseiulus triporus and Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) rhenanoides for the Belgian fauna. In the study, additional morphological information and new illustrations for the new records as well as an identification key for the Belgian species of Phytoseiidae are presented.


Introduction

Predatory mites from the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) are important natural enemies of phytophagous mites and small insects, such as whiteflies, thrips and psyllids (McMurtry and Croft 1997; McMurtry et al. 2013; Jorge et al. 2021). Several phytoseiids are commercially available and are being used as biological control agents in a wide range of crops (Knapp et al. 2018). However, the determination of native populations is of great importance due to their adaptations to specific environmental conditions (Gerson 2014).

Despite the relatively large number of phytoseiids reported in its neighbouring countries such as France (more than 80 species), Germany (more than 70 species), The Netherlands (about 30 species), as well as some other countries in north Europe such as Poland (about 40 species) and United Kingdom (about 30 species), only 17 valid species of phytoseiids have been reported from Belgium (Demite et al. 2022).

Previous faunistic studies showed no indication of presence of Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant), Neoseiulus reductus (Wainstein), Kampimodromus corylosus Kolodochka, Paraseiulus triporus (Chant & Yoshida-Shaul), and Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) rhenanoides Athias-Henriot in Belgium (Nesbitt 1951; Chant 1959; Malevez 1976; Karg 1982; André 1986; Evans and Momen 1988; Fain et al. 1993; Döker et al. 2014). In this study we reported these five species for the first time in Belgium. Some additional morphological information and new illustrations for the new records as well as an identification key for the Belgian species of Phytoseiidae are presented in the study.

Material and methods

Samples were collected from several locations in Belgium. The samples were examined under a stereobinocular and stored in 70% ethanol. Phytoseiid mites were cleared in 60% lactic acid during 24 hours at 50 ºC, then mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium. Further examinations and measurements were performed under an Axio Imager A2 (Carl Zeiss, Germany) microscope equipped with differential interference contrast (DIC) optical system. Pictures were taken with Axiocam 506 colour (Carl Zeiss, Germany). Most images were captured in stacks with focal depth controlled manually. Selected images were combined using computer program, Helicon Focus 7.6.4 Pro (Helicon Soft Ltd., 2000). The taxonomic system used follows Chant and McMurtry (2007). The setal nomenclature used follows Lindquist and Evans (1965) as adapted by Rowell et al. (1978) for the family Phytoseiidae. The ventral setal pattern notations follow Chant and Yoshida-Shaul (1991). Nomenclature of the dorsal solenostomes (gland pores) follows that of Athias-Henriot (1975). Measurements are given in micrometers (µm) presented as mean followed by the range in parenthesis if more than two specimens were measured. The dorsal shield length was measured from the anterior to posterior margins along the midline.

Results

Subfamily Amblyseiinae Muma

Tribe Amblyseiini Wainstein

Genus Amblyseius Berlese

Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant)

Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) herbicolus Chant, 1959: 84.

(Figure 1)

Figure 1. Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant) female. a – Dorsal idiosoma, b – Ventral idiosoma of a normal specimen, c – Ventral idiosoma of an abnormal specimen with seta ZV2 out of shield in left side and seta JV4 absent in right side, d – Chelicera, e, f – Spermathecae.

Material examined — Five females from cherry laurel, Prunus laurocerasus L. (Rosaceae) in Ghent, Belgium, (51°03′04.4″N, 3°45′16.9″E), 27 September 2021, collector D. Vangansbeke.

Re-descriptionFemale (n = 5)Dorsum (Figure 1a). Dorsal shield smooth with seven pairs of solenostomes (gd1, gd2, gd4, gd5, gd6, gd8 and gd9). Length of dorsal shield 388 (385–390), width (at level of s4) 252 (250–255), width (at level of S2) 248 (240–260). Dorsal setae smooth except Z4 and Z5 slightly serrated; measurements of setae as follows: j1 39 (38–40), j3 43 (40–45), j4 7 (5–8), j5 6 (5–8), j6 6 (5–8), J2 8 (8–10), J5 7 (5–8), z2 12 (10–13), z4 9 (8–10), z5 7 (5–8), Z1 8 (6–8), Z4 103 (98–105), Z5 266 (250–270), s4 98 (95–105), S2 11 (10–13), S4 10 (8–13), S5 9 (8–10), r3 11 (10–13), R1 9 (8–10). Peritreme extending between setae j1.

Venter (Figure 1b, c). All ventral shields smooth. Distances between (st1st3) 71 (69–73), st2st2 77 (75–80), st5st5 72 (67–75). Ventrianal shield vase-shaped with three pairs of preanal setae (ZV2 in left side out of shield in one specimen) and one pair of large crescentic pores (gv3), distance between pre-anal pores 25 (23–28). Length of ventrianal shield 120 (115–125), width at level of setae ZV2 53 (49–56), width at level of paranal setae 72 (69–74). Setae ZV1, ZV3, JV4 and JV5 integument surrounding ventrianal shield (JV4 absent in right side of a specimen). Setae JV5 smooth 54 (53–55) in length.

Chelicera (Figure 1d). Fixed digit of chelicera with 12 teeth; movable digit with four teeth.

Spermatheca (Figure 1e, f). Calyx of spermatheca trumpet-shaped, elongated, flaring distally 29 (28–30) in length. Atrium enlarged, wider than base of calyx. Major duct long; minor duct well-developed.

Legs. GeII, GeIII and GeIV each with seven setae. All legs with macrosetae. Measurements of macrosetae as follows: SgeI 47 (45–48), SgeII 39 (38–40), SgeIII 47 (45–48), StiIII 39 (38–40), StIII 37 (35–38), SgeIV 113 (110–118), StiIV 81 (80–83) and StIV 70 (68–73).

RemarksAmblyseius herbicolus is a new record for the Belgian fauna. Morphological characters and measurements of the current specimens are very close to those of the original description and re-descriptions (Chant 1959; Denmark and Muma 1989; Demite et al. 2017; Zannou et al. 2007; Guanilo et al. 2008a, b; Ferragut et al. 2010; Akyazı et al. 2016; Kreiter et al. 2018; Döker et al. 2020; Liao et al. 2020). Ventral seta ZV2 in one of the examined specimens in the left side is inserted on integument surrounding ventrianal shield (out of ventrianal shield, see Figure 1c). In addition, setae JV4 is absent in the right side of the same specimen. Based on our best knowledge, these variations are reported for the first time for A. herbicolus.

Tribe Neoseiulini Chant and Mcmurtry

Genus Neoseiulus Hughes

Neoseiulus reductus (Wainstein)

Amblyseius reductus Wainstein, 1962: 143.

(Figure 2)

Figure 2. Neoseiulus reductus (Wainstein) female. a – Dorsal idiosoma, b – Ventral idiosoma, c – Chelicera, d – Spermatheca.

Material examined — One female was collected from blackberry (Rubus sp.), in De Haan, Belgium (51°16′51.7″N, 3°02′52.5″E), 9 January 2022, collector D. Vangansbeke. A second female was collected from blackberry (Rubus sp.), in Oostende, Belgium, (51°13′28.1″N, 2°55′36.9″E), 2 February 2022, collector D. Vangansbeke.

Re-descriptionFemale (n = 2)Dorsum (Figure 2a). Dorsal shield smooth with five pairs of solenostomes (gd1, gd2, gd6, gd8 and gd9). Length of dorsal shield 320–331, width (at level of s4) 167–174, width (at level of S2) 187–190. Dorsal setae smooth except Z4 and Z5 slightly serrated; measurements of setae as follows: j1 20–22, j3 30–34, j4 19–21, j5 17–19, j6 23, J2 25–26, J5 10–11, z2 30–33, z4 34–38, z5 19–22, Z1 26–30, Z4 48–51, Z5 65, s4 45–46, S2 43, S4 32–34, S5 31–32, r3 28–30, R1 21–23. Peritreme extending between setae j3z2.

Venter (Figure 2b). Sternal shield striated with some faint patches of reticulations. Distances between (st1st3) 62–64, st2st2 62–63. Genital shield faintly reticulated, width at level of setae st5 54–59. Ventrianal shield pentagonal, preanal area striated, postanal area reticulated; with three pairs of preanal setae and one pair of large crescentic pores (gv3), distance between pre-anal pores 16–18. Length of ventrianal shield 110–112, width at level of setae ZV2 80–82, width at level of paranal setae 68–72. Setae ZV1, ZV3, JV4 and JV5 integument surrounding ventrianal shield. Setae JV5 smooth 35–40 in length.

Chelicera (Figure 2c). Fixed digit of chelicerae with six teeth; movable digit with one tooth.

Spermatheca (Figure 2d). Calyx of spermatheca saccular, elongated, flaring distally 17–18 in length. Atrium nodular attached to the calyx with very short neck. Major duct long; minor duct well-developed.

Legs. GeII, GeIII and GeIV with eight, seven and seven setae, respectively. Leg IV with three macrosetae. Measurements of macrosetae as follows: SgeIV 25–26, StiIV 24–25 and StIV 38–40.

RemarksNeoseiulus reductus is a new record for the Belgian fauna. Morphological characters and measurements of the current specimens are very close to those of the original description and re-descriptions (Wainstein 1962; Kolodochka, 1978; Miedema 1987; Cakar et al. 2020; Inak et al. 2020). However, as opposed to the aforementioned descriptions, sternal shield striated with some faint patches of reticulations and genital shield reticulated in Belgian specimens.

Tribe Kampimodromini Kolodochka

Subtribe Kampimodromina Chant and McMurtry

Genus Kampimodronus Nesbitt

Kampimodromus corylosus Kolodochka

Kampimodromus corylosus Kolodochka, 2003: 51.

(Figure 3)

Figure 3. Kampimodromus corylosus Kolodochka female. a – Dorsal idiosoma, b – Chelicera, c – Spermatheca, d – Leg IV (basitarsus and telotarsus).

Material examined — One female (11 January 2022) and four females (30 January 2022) from common hazel Corylus avellana L. (Betulaceae) in Gent, Belgium, (51°02′44.5″N, 3°44′47.6″E), collector D. Vangansbeke.

Re-descriptionFemale (n = 5)Dorsum (Figure 3a). Dorsal shield reticulated with five pairs of solenostomes (gd1, gd2, gd6, gd8 and gd9). Length of dorsal shield 296 (293–298), width (at level of s4) 170 (166–172), width (at level of S2) 170 (164–174). Dorsal setae serrated except j4, j5, j6, J2, Z1 smooth; measurements of setae as follows: j1 17 (16–17), j3 21 (21–22), j4 16 (16–17), j5 14 (13–14), j6 17 (16–18), J2 21 (17–23), J5 8 (7–9), z2 25 (24–26), z4 32 (31–33), z5 18 (17–18), Z1 20 (19–21), Z4 38 (37–39), Z5 48 (46–49), s4 39 (35–41), S2 42 (40–45), S5 18 (18–19), r3 38 (36–40), R1 25 (24–26). Peritreme extending between setae j3z2.

Venter. All ventral shields smooth except ventrianal shield with some faint striations posterior to setae JV2. Distances between (st1st3) 63 (61–65), st2st2 57 (56–58), st5st5 48 (46–49). Ventrianal shield elongated with three pairs of preanal setae and one pair of large crescentic solenostomes (gv3), distance between pre-anal pores 15 (12–16). Length of ventrianal shield 96 (94–100), width at level of setae ZV2 50 (48–52), width at level of paranal setae 48 (48–49). Setae ZV1, ZV3, JV4 and JV5 integument surrounding ventrianal shield. Setae JV5 serrated 32 (29–34) in length.

Chelicera (Figure 3b). Fixed digit of chelicerae with three teeth; movable digit smooth.

Spermatheca (Figure 3c). Calyx of spermatheca cup-shaped, flaring distally 9 (8–10) in length. Atrium nodular attached to calyx without neck. Major duct long; minor duct developed.

Legs. GeII, GeIII and GeIV eight, seven and eight setae, respectively. Leg IV with two macrosetae both with two barbs and blunt or slightly knobbed tip. Macrosetae basitarsus IV 22 (20–23) and telotarsus IV 21 (20–22) in length.

RemarksKampimodromus corylosus is a new record for the Belgian fauna. Morphological characters and measurements of the current specimens are very close to those of the original description and re-descriptions (Kolodochka 2003; Tixier et al. 2008; Cargnus et al. 2012). Similar to the Belgian material, Kolodochka (2003) described macroseta on basitarsus IV with two barbs. We here recognized and illustrated an additional macroseta on telotarsus which have also two barbs, and blunt tip. Therefore, the presence or absence of modified macrosetae on legs, as an additional diagnostic character, should also be investigated in other species in this genus.

Subfamily Typhlodrominae Wainstein

Tribe Paraseiulini Wainstein

Paraseiulus Muma

Paraseiulus triporus (Chant & Yoshida-Shaul)

Typhlodromus triporus Chant & Yoshida-Shaul, 1982: 3029.

(Figure 4)

Figure 4. Paraseiulus triporus (Chant & Yoshida-Shaul) female. a – Anterolateral area of dorsal shield with solenostome gd2, b – Lateral area of dorsal shield with solenostome gd6, c – Posterolateral area of dorsal shield with solenostome gd9, d – Chelicera, e – Spermatheca.

Material examined — One female from black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn., Betulaceae), 27 November 2021, in Ghent, Belgium (51°02′44.4″N, 3°44′47.4″E). Three females from blackberry (Rubus sp., Rosaceae), 22 January 2022, in Ghent, Belgium, (51°02′43.7″N, 3°44′59.7″E). One female from blackberry plant (Rubus sp., Rosaceae), 19 February 2022, in Merelbeke, Belgium, (51°00′54.9″N, 3°44′34.4″E), collector D. Vangansbeke.

Re-descriptionFemale (n = 5)Dorsum (Figure 4a, b, c). Dorsal shield strongly reticulated with three pairs of solenostomes (gd2, gd6 and gd9). Length of dorsal shield 372 (370–375), width (at level of s4) 179 (172–184), width (at level of S2) 206 (200–214). Dorsal setae smooth except Z5 slightly serrated; measurements of setae as follows: j1 19 (17–21), j3 27 (24–31), j4 20 (19–21), j5 20 (19–21), j6 27 (23–30), J2 29 (28–30), J5 12 (11–13), z2 32 (31–32), z4 36 (35–36), z5 21 (18–26), z6 25 (22–27), Z4 31 (28–34), Z5 46 (45–48), s4 37 (32–42), s6 38 (35–41), S2 40 (38–41), S4 32 (30–33), S5 34 (33–34), r3 33 (32–33), R1 29 (27–32). Peritreme extending between setae j1j3.

Venter. Sternal and genital shields smooth, ventrianal shield striated. Distances between (st1st2) 48 (46–52), st2st2 61 (58–63), st5st5 64 (61–66). Ventrianal shield elongated two pairs of preanal setae without preanal pores. Length of ventrianal shield 121 (119–123), width at level of setae ZV2 51 (47–56), width at level of paranal setae 62 (57–69). Setae ZV1, ZV3, JV4 and JV5 integument surrounding ventrianal shield. Setae JV5 smooth 39 (36–41) in length.

Chelicera (Figure 4d). Fixed digit of chelicera with four teeth and pilus dentilis; movable digit with one tooth.

Spermatheca (Figure 4e). Calyx of spermatheca bell-shaped, progressively narrowing where it joins c-shaped atrium, base weakly sclerotized.

Legs. GeII, GeIII and GeIV with eight, seven and seven setae, respectively. Leg IV with one macroseta, StIV 30 (28–34).

RemarksParaseiulus triporus is a new record for the Belgian fauna. Morphological characters and measurements of the current specimens are very close to those of the original description and re-descriptions (Chant and Yoshida-Shaul 1982; Miedema 1987; Faraji et al. 2007; Ferragut et al. 2010; Papadoulis et al. 2009).

Tribe Typhlodromini Wainstein

Genus Typhlodromus

Subgenus Anthoseius De Leon

Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) rhenanoides Athias-Henriot

Typhlodromus rhenanoides Athias-Henriot, 1960: 85.

(Figure 5)

Figure 5. Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) rhenanoides Athias-Henriot female. a – Podonotal area of dorsal shield with solenostomes gd2, b – Lateral area of dorsal shield with solenostomes gd2, gd4 and gd6, c – Posterolateral area of dorsal shield with solenostomes gd8 and gd9, d – Ventrianal shield with solenostome gv3, e – Chelicera, f – Spermatheca g – Leg IV (Genu, tibia and basitarsus).

Material examined — Ten females and two males from cherry laurel, Prunus laurocerasus L. (Rosaceae) in Ghent, Belgium, (51°03′04.4″N, 3°45′16.9″E), 27 September 2021, collector D. Vangansbeke.

Re-descriptionFemale (n = 10)Dorsum (Figure 5a, b, c). Dorsal shield reticulated with five pairs of solenostomes (gd2, gd4, gd6, gd8 and gd9). Length of dorsal shield 348 (340–355), width (at level of s4) 185 (180–188), width (at level of S2) 192 (190–195). Dorsal setae smooth except Z4 and Z5 slightly serrated; measurements of setae as follows: j1 28 (26–31), j3 31 (27–35), j4 16 (15–18), j5 18 (15–19), j6 21 (20–24), J2 25 (22–27), J5 10 (9–11), z2 18 (17–21), z3 26 (25–30), z4 25 (23–28), z5 17 (15–19), Z4 46 (44–49), Z5 69 (63–76), s4 30 (29–33), s6 33 (30–37), S2 38 (35–41), S4 40 (37–44), S5 22 (18–27), r3 28 (25–30), R1 29 (27–30). Peritreme extending to almost base of setae j1.

Venter (Figure 5d). All ventral shields smooth. Distances between (st1st2) 37 (35–38), st2st2 58 (58–60), st5st5 63 (60–65). Ventrianal shield pentagonal with three pairs of preanal setae and one pair of rounded solenostomes (gv3), distance between pre-anal pores 37 (35–38). Length of ventrianal shield 109 (108–110), width at level of setae ZV2 103 (103–105). Setae ZV1, ZV3, JV4 and JV5 integument surrounding ventrianal shield. Setae JV5 smooth 60 (55–66) in length.

Chelicera (Figure 5e). Fixed digit with four teeth and pilus dentilis; movable digit with two teeth.

Spermatheca (Figure 5f). Calyx saccular or tubular, flaring distally, 22 (20–23) in length; atrium nodular attached to calyx without neck. Major duct as wide as atrium, minor duct visible.

Legs. GeII, GeIII and GeIV each with seven setae. Leg IV with three macrosetae, all knobbed apically. Measurements of macrosetae as follows; SgeIV 26 (24–28), StiIV 33 (32–34) and StIV 64 (62–65).

Male (n = 2) – Similar to female in many aspects. Dorsum. Setae r3 and R1 on shield. Dorsal shield reticulated, with five pairs of solenostomes (gd2, gd4, gd6, gd8 and gd9). Length of dorsal shield 270–288, width (at level of s4) 145–160, width (at level of S2) 150–155. Dorsal setae smooth, except Z5 slightly serrated. Measurements of dorsal setae as follows: j1 20–23, j3 25–28, j4 13–15, j5 13–15, j6 15–18, J2 18, J5 8, z2 15–18, z3 18–20, z4 18–20, z5 13, Z4 38–40, Z5 48–50, s4 20–25, s6 23–25, S2 25–28, S4 25–28, S5 15–18, r3 18–20 and R1 18. Peritreme extending to level of setae between setae j3z2.

Venter. Sternogenital shield smooth. Ventrianal shield triangular, reticulated, with four pairs of pre-anal setae (JV1, JV2, JV3, and ZV2); with one pair of small rounded solenostomes (gv3) between setae JV3. Length of ventrianal shield 105–108, width (at anterior corners, widest point) 153–155. Setae JV5 smooth, much longer than other ventral setae (25–28).

Chelicera. Fixed digit with four teeth and pilus dentilis; movable digit with one tooth, spermatophoral process L-shaped, foot 25–28 in length, with toe slightly developed.

Legs. Genua II, III, and IV each with seven setae. Leg IV with three knobbed macrosetae, SgeIV 18, StiIV 18–20 and StIV 45–48.

RemarksTyphlodromus (Anthoseius) rhenanoides is a new record for the Belgian fauna. Morphological characters including the presence of preanal pores and measurements of the current specimens are very close to those of the original description and re-descriptions (Athias-Henriot 1960; Schuster and Pritchard 1963; Papadoulis et al. 2009; Ferragut et al. 2010). However, as oppose to the all previous descriptions, three knobbed macrosetae on leg IV are present in the Belgian material, as previously mentioned by Faraji et al. (2011b) based on the specimens collected from France.

Key to Belgian Species of Phytoseiidae

1. Setae z3 and s6 absent
...... 2

—Either or both setae z3 and s6 present
...... 12

2. Sternal shield with median posterior projection; deutosternal groove wider (\textgreater5 μm in width); with forward migration of preanal setae JV2 and ZV2; preanal setae of male usually arranged in tangential row rather than triangular pattern
...... Euseius Wainstein 3

— Sternal shield without posterior projection; deutosternal groove narrower (< 5 μm in width); without forward migration of preanal setae JV2 and ZV2; preanal setae of male usually arranged in a triangular pattern rather than tangential row
...... 4

3. Calyx of spermatheca short and bulged
...... E. finlandicus (Oudemans)

— Calyx of spermatheca tubular
...... E. gallicus Kreiter & Tixier

4. Seta S4 absent
...... Kampimodromus Nesbit – K. corylosus Kolodochka

— Seta S4 present
...... 5

5. Ratio seta s4:Z1 < 3.0:1.0; setae s4, Z4, and usually Z5 not greatly longer than other dorsal setae
...... 6

— Ratio seta s4:Z1 < 3.1:1.0; setae s4, Z5, and usually Z4 markedly longer than other dorsal setae
...... 9

6. Macrosetae present on leg II and III in addition to leg IV
...... Aristadromips Chant & McMurtry – A. masseei (Nesbitt)

— Macroseta present only on leg IV
...... Neoseiulus Hughes 7

7. Genu II with seven setae
...... N. alpinus (Schweizer)

— Genu II with eight setae
...... 8

8. Peritreme long extending level of seta j1; ventrianal shield with small rounded solenostomes
...... N. cucumeris (Oudemans)

— Peritreme short extending between setae j3z2; ventrianal shield with large elliptical solenostomes
...... N. reductus (Wainstein)

9. Ratio seta s4:S2< 3.0:1.0
...... Amblyseius Berlese 10

— Ratio seta s4:S2\textless2.7:1.0
...... Transeius Chant and McMurtry 11

10. Female ventrianal shield vase-shaped
...... A. herbicolus (Chant)

— Female ventrianal shield pentagonal
...... A. andersoni (Chant)

11. Calyx of spermatheca short, length and width subequal
...... T. wainsteini (Gomelauri)

— Calyx of spermatheca elongated, saccular
...... T. namurensis (Fain, Vangeluwe, Degreef and Wauthy)

12. Setae J2, S2, and S4 absent Phytoseius Ribaga
...... P. macropilis (Banks)

— Setae J2, S2, and S4 present
...... 13

13. Seta z6 present Paraseiulus Muma
...... Paraseiulus triporus (Chant and Yoshida-Shaul)

— Seta z6 absent
...... 14

14. Seta Z1 present
...... Neoseiulella Muma – N. aceri (Collyer)

— Seta Z1 absent
...... Typhlodromus Scheuten 15

15. Seta S5 present
...... 16

— Seta S5 absent
...... 19

16. Preanal pores present
...... 17

— Preanal pores absent
...... 18

17. Leg IV with three macrosetae, knobbed apically; macrosetae StIV longer than the distance between its base and dorsal slit organ; genu II with eight setae; movable digit of chelicera with two teeth
...... T. (A.) rhenanoides Athias-Henriot

— Leg IV with only one macroseta, sharp pointed and shorter than the distance between its base and dorsal slit organ; genu II with eight setae; movable digit of chelicera with one tooth
...... T. (A.) rhenanus (Oudemans)

18. Calyx of spermatheca short, bell-shaped
...... T. (A.) foenilis Oudemans

— Calyx of spermatheca elongate
...... T. (A.) richteri Karg

19. Dorsal shield with three pairs of solenostomes
...... 20

— Dorsal shield with four pairs of solenostomes
...... 21

20. Seta Z4 as long as distance between its insertion and that of Z5; calyx of spermatheca elongate, with short neck
...... T. (T.) pyri Scheuten

— Seta Z4 shorter than distance between its insertion and that of Z5; calyx of spermatheca cup-shaped with long neck between atrium and calyx
...... T. (T.) tubifer Wainstein

21. Preanal pores present
...... T. (T.) andrei Karg

— Preanal pores absent
...... T. (T.) tiliae Oudemans

Notes on the identification key

Amblyseius potentillae (Garman) reported by Malevez (1976), Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) picea (Karg & Edland) reported by Karg & Edland (1987) are considered junior synonyms of A. andersoni and T. (A.) foenilis Oudemans as suggested by Chant & Yoshida-Shaul (1990) and Evans & Edland (1998), respectively. The previous report of Transeius similis (Koch) by Chant (1959) in Belgium is considered as T. wainsteini due to status of the former as nomen dubium, as suggested by Chant and McMurtry (2004), Faraji et al. (2011a) and Khaustov et al. (2021). Moreover, Transeius namurensis (Fain, Vangeluwe, Degreef and Wauthy) is suspected as a junior synonym of Graminaseius graminis (Chant), due to insufficient diagnostic characters used to separate these two species in its original description and the descriptions of the latter (Chant 1956; Kolodochka 1978; Döker et al. 2019). We included this species to the identification key on a provisional basis, as we are unable to examine its type materials. The list of recorded species was obtained online database created by Demite et al. (2022).

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the Cukurova University Scientific Projects Foundation Units, grant number: FAY-2022-14495.



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Article editorial history
Date received:
2022-05-23
Date accepted:
2022-09-06
Date published:
2022-09-29

Edited by:
Kreiter, Serge

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2022 Döker, Ismail; Vangansbeke, Dominiek and Merckx, Jonas
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