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First description of phoretic and redescription of non-phoretic females of Pediculaster nidicolus (Mahunka) (Acari: Pygmephoridae) from Western Siberia, Russia

Khaustov, Alexander A.1

1✉ Tyumen State University, Tyumen, Volodarskogo 6, 625003 Russia.

2022 - Volume: 62 Issue: 2 pages: 359-377

https://doi.org/10.24349/zk54-xqx6
ZooBank LSID: 022BDC53-CB93-4CFF-BA55-1DE9153AD7CA

Original research

Keywords

Pygmephoroidea systematics morphology female dimorphism Tyumen Region

Abstract

Phoretic and non-phoretic females of Pediculaster nidicolus (Mahunka) (Acari: Pygmephoridae) are recorded from Russia for the first time. Mites were collected from the nest of undetermined small mammal in Western Siberia, Russia. Non-phoretic female is redescribed, and phoretic female is described for the first time. An updated key to phoretic females of Palaearctic Pediculaster species is provided.


Introduction

The genus Pediculaster Vitzthum, 1931 (Acari: Pygmephoroidea) is the largest in the family Pygmephoridae and comprises more than 100 described species in the world fauna (Khaustov 2020; Seyedein et al. 2021). Mites of the genus Pediculaster are fungivorous and inhabit a great variety of habitats, e.g. soil, litter, mosses, dung, nest material, decaying organic matter (Camerik and Kheradmand 2010). Some species are considered as pests of mushrooms in commercial mushroom-houses (Cross and Kaliszewski 1988). Pediculaster-mites are characterized by the presence of two morphologically different forms of females: non-phoretic or ''normal'' and phoretic (Martin 1978; Camerik et al. 2006). For most species of Pediculaster non-phoretic females still unknown. At the same time, some species were described based only on non-phoretic females. Until now eight species of Pediculaster have been reported from Western Siberia, namely: P. bisetus Khaustov, 2020, P. camerikae Khaustov, 2008b, P. dudinskii Khaustov, 2011, P. ermilovi Khaustov, 2015, P. lignarius Khaustov, 2015, P. montanus Khaustov, 2008b, P. rarus Khaustov, 2020, and P. tjumeniensis Khaustov, 2020 (Khaustov 2015, 2020).

Non-phoretic females of Pediculaster nidicolus (Mahunka, 1972) were described from the nest of mole (Talpa europaea) from Austria (Mahunka 1972). Later it was also recorded from Slovenia (Mahunka 1975). Phoretic female of this species were unknown up till now.

During the study of heterostigmatic mites of Western Siberia, I found numerous specimens of phoretic and non-phoretic females of Pediculaster nidicolus from the nest of undetermined small mammal. The main goal of this paper is to redescribe non-phoretic and describe phoretic females of Pediculaster nidicolus based on material from Western Siberia.

Material and methods

The mites were collected from sample of small mammal nest using Berlese funnels and mounted in Hoyer's medium. Numerous phoretic females were attached to various insects (rove beetles, insect larvae) and bigger mites (Figs 9A, B).The terminology of the idiosoma and legs follows that of Lindquist (1986); the nomenclature of subcapitular setae and the designation of cheliceral setae follow those of Grandjean (1944, 1947), respectively. The systematics of Pygmephoroidea follows that of Khaustov (2004, 2008a). All measurements are given in micrometers (μm). For leg chaetotaxy, the number of solenidia is given in parentheses. Mite morphology was studied using a Carl Zeiss AxioImager A2 compound microscope with phase contrast and differential-interference contrast (DIC) illumination. Photomicrographs were taken with a digital camera AxioCam ICc5 (Carl Zeiss, Germany). For SEM microscopy, alcohol-preserved mites were dried in a freeze drying device JFD 320 (JEOL, Japan), dusted with gold and scanned with the aid of a JEOL–JSM-6510LV SEM microscope.

Abbreviations: ap1-ap5 - apodemes 1-5, appr - prosternal apodeme, appo - poststernal apodeme, apsej - sejugal apodeme, Tr - trochanter, Fe - femur, Ge - genu, Ti - tibia, Ta - tarsus, TiTa - tibiotarsus, ass - accessory setigenous structure, php 1-3 - pharyngeal pumps 1-3.

Systematics

Family Pygmephoridae Cross, 1965

Genus Pediculaster Vitzthum, 1931

Type species: Pygmephorus mesembrinae Canestrini, 1881, by original designation.

Pediculaster nidicolus (Mahunka, 1972)

Siteroptes nidicolus Mahunka, 1972, 58

Siteroptes (Siteroptoides) nidicolus: Martin 1978, 125

Pediculaster nidicolus: Mahunka 1979, 133

(Figs 1–10)

Redescription of non-phoretic female

(Figs 1–4)

Figure 1. Pediculaster nidicolus (Mahunka, 1972), non-phoretic female: A – dorsum of body, B – venter of body. Legs omitted.

Figure 2. Pediculaster nidicolus (Mahunka, 1972), non-phoretic female: A – gnathosoma, dorsal aspect, B – gnathosoma and pharyngeal pumps, ventral aspect.

Figure 3. Pediculaster nidicolus (Mahunka, 1972), non-phoretic female: A – left leg I, dorsal aspect, B – left leg II, dorsal aspect.

Figure 4. Pediculaster nidicolus (Mahunka, 1972), non-phoretic female: A – left leg III, dorsal aspect, B – left leg IV, dorsal aspect.

Length of idiosoma 255–315, width 130–160.

Idiosomal dorsum (Fig. 1A). All dorsal shields with numerous small round puncta. Stigmata small, oval, one-chambered and associated with long tracheal trunks. Setae h2 pointed and smooth, other dorsal setae blunt-tipped and barbed; trichobothria sc1 short, spherical. Cupuli ia on tergite D and ih on tergite H very small, round. Setae v1 situated distinctly anteriad v2. Lengths of dorsal setae: v1 27–33, v2 22–25, sc2 55–64, c1 42–48, c2 55–63, d 47–60, e 26–30, f 48–59, h1 45–53, h2 11–14. Distances between setae: v1v1 8–9, v2v2 30–36, sc2sc2 30–40, c1c1 44–55, c1c2 25–30, dd 66–76, ef 13–14, ff 51–61, h1h1 36–46, h1h2 17–19.

Idiosomal venter (Fig. 1B). Ventral plates with numerous small round puncta. Sternocoxal fields I and II with three pairs of setae each. Setae 1c, 2b, 3c and 4c usually pointed; other ventral setae blunt-tipped; setae 1c, ps1 and ps2 smooth, other ventral setae weakly barbed; setae 2a subequal with 2b; setae ps3 much longer than ps1-2. Ap1, ap2 and apsej well developed and joined with appr; ap3, ap4 and ap5 well developed and joined with appo. Posterior margin of poststernal plate almost straight, without median lobe. Only one horn-shaped genital sclerite clearly visible. Lengths of ventral setae: 1a 13–17, 1b 18–23, 1c 17–19, 2a 14–18, 2b 15–21, 2c 16–18, 3a 17–19, 3b 15–18, 3c 20–22, 4a 14–18, 4b 17–19, 4c 18–21, ps1 7–8, ps2 8–11, ps3 27–30.

Gnathosoma (Fig. 2). Length of gnathosomal capsule 26–30, width 27–31. Dorsal median apodeme weakly developed. All gnathosomal setae pointed; setae cha and chb weakly barbed, other gnathosomal setae smooth. Palp tibiotarsus with well-developed blunt-tipped claw and tiny eupathid-like seta; palps with well-developed solenidion and mushroom-shaped accessory setigenous structure ventrally. Php 1 small, bow-shaped, located outside gnathosomal capsule; php 2 and 3 oval (Fig. 2B), situated close to each other on long oesophagus and far from php 1. Lengths of gnathosomal setae: cha 12–13, chb 14–18, dFe 11–12, dGe 13–16, m 14–17. Palpcoxal (postpalpal) setae and pits m absent.

Legs (Figs 3, 4). Leg I (Fig. 3A). Setation: Tr 1 (v′), Fe 4 (d, l', l'', v''), Ge 4 (l', l'', v′, v''), Ti 6(2) (d, l', l'', v′, v'', k, φ1, φ2), Ta 13(2) (pl', pl'', p′, p'', tc′, tc'', ft′, ft'', s, pv′, pv'', u′, u'', ω1, ω2). Tarsus with simple hooked claw. Lengths of solenidia ω1 15–17, ω2 7–8, φ1 8–9, φ2 7–9; solenidion ω1 digitiform, solenidion φ1 slightly clavate, other solenidia baculiform. Setae (p), (tc) and (ft) eupathid-like, smooth and weakly blunt-tipped; seta k of tibia smooth and weakly blunt-tipped; other leg setae pointed and barbed, sometimes seta v′ of trochanter smooth. Leg II (Fig. 3B). Setation: Tr 1 (v′), Fe 3 (d, l', v''), Ge 3 (l', l'', v′), Ti 4(1) (d, l', v′, v'', φ), Ta 7(1) (pl'', tc′, tc'', pv′, pv'', u′, u'', ω). Solenidion ω 10–12 digitiform, solenidion φ 4–5 erect, baculiform. Tarsal claws simple, hooked; empodium short and wide, flipper-like. All leg setae barbed; setae d and l' of femur blunt-tipped, other leg setae pointed. Leg III (Fig. 4A). Setation: Tr 1 (v′), F2 3 (d, v′), Ge 2 (l', v′), Ti 4(1) (d, l', v′, v'', φ), Ta 7 (pl'', tc′, tc'', pv′, pv'', u′, u''). Claws and empodium as on tarsus II. Solenidion φ 4–5 erect, baculiform. All leg setae barbed; setae d, v′ of femur and l' of genu blunt-tipped, other leg setae pointed. Leg IV (Fig. 4B). Setation: Tr 1 (v′), Fe 2 (d, v′), Ge 1 (v′), Ti 4(1) (d, l', v′, v'', φ), Ta 6 (pl'', tc′, tc'', pv′, pv'', u′). Claws and empodium as on tarsi II and III. Solenidion φ 3–4 erect, baculiform. All leg setae barbed; setae v′ of trochanter, d and v′ of femur blunt-tipped, other leg setae pointed.

Description of phoretic female

(Figs 5–10)

Figure 5. Pediculaster nidicolus (Mahunka, 1972), phoretic female: A – dorsum of body, B – venter of body. Legs omitted.

Figure 6. Pediculaster nidicolus (Mahunka, 1972), phoretic female: A – left leg I, dorsal aspect, B – left leg II, dorsal aspect.

Figure 7. Pediculaster nidicolus (Mahunka, 1972), phoretic female: A – left leg III, dorsal aspect, B – left leg IV, dorsal aspect.

Figure 8. Phase contrast micrograph of Pediculaster nidicolus (Mahunka, 1972), phoretic female: A – general view dorsally, B – general view ventrally.

Figure 9. SEM micrographs of Pediculaster nidicolus (Mahunka, 1972), phoretic female: A – several females attached to gamasid mite Haemogamasus ambulans (Haemogamasidae), B – one female attached to Haemogamasus ambulans, C – general view dorsally, D – prodorsum, E – general view ventrally, F – prosoma, ventral aspect.

Figure 10. SEM micrographs of Pediculaster nidicolus (Mahunka, 1972), phoretic female: A – gnathosoma, B – metapodosoma, ventral aspect, C – opisthosoma, ventral aspect, D – tibia and tarsus II, dorsal aspect, E – tibiotarsus I, dorsal aspect, F – tibiotarsus I, ventral aspect.

Length of idiosoma 260–335, width 145–165. Sclerotization of body stronger than in non-phoretic female.

Idiosomal dorsum (Figs 5A, 8A, 9C, D) as in phoretic female, but dorsal setae usually longer and puncta on dorsal shields slightly bigger. Setae v1 and v2 situated in one transverse row. Prodorsum anterolaterally with pocket-like depressions (Fig. 9C). Lengths of dorsal setae: v1 35–41, v2 32–35, sc2 67–69, c1 57–71, c2 69–81, d 59–73, e 39–50, f 66–77, h1 55–69, h2 12–16. Distances between setae: v1v1 10–12, v2v2 26–28, sc2sc2 30–36, c1c1 42–46, c1c2 29–33, dd 70–77, ef 14–22, ff 56–62, h1h1 37–47, h1h2 19–23.

Idiosomal venter (Figs 5B, 8B, 9E, F, 10B, C) similar to that of non-phoretic female, but plates sclerotized stronger, setae usually longer, ap5 sclerotized weaker and usually not extending beyond bases of setae 4a and puncta on ventral plates bigger. Setae 1b, 2c, and ps1-3 weakly blunt-tipped, other ventral setae pointed; in some specimens setae 1a, 2a and 3a weakly blunt-tipped. Lengths of ventral setae: 1a 22–28, 1b 28–31, 1c 23–26, 2a 23–31, 2b 27–30, 2c 23–26, 3a 22–29, 3b 24–29, 3c 26–34, 4a 24–33, 4b 28–38, 4c 28–32, ps1 8–11, ps2 9–11, ps3 31–35.

Gnathosoma (Fig. 10A). Length of gnathosomal capsule 25–29, width 27–31. Gnathosoma and pharyngeal pumps as in non-phoretic female. Lengths of gnathosomal setae: cha 14–18, chb 16–23, dFe 12–14, dGe 15–17, m 16–18.

Legs (Figs 6, 7, 10D–F). Leg I (Figs 6A, 10E, F). Tibia and tarsus fused into massive ovate tibiotarsus. Tarsal claw thicker than in non-phoretic female; Unguinal setae fused into subtriangular structure opposing to claw. Seta d of femur spatulate; setae (l) of genu, k, (p), (tc), and (ft) of tibiotarsus blunt-tipped, other leg setae pointed; setae l' of femur, pl′, k, (p), (tc), and (ft) of tibiotarsus smooth, other leg setae barbed. Leg setation: Tr 1 (v′), Fe 4 (d, l', l'', v''), Ge 4 (l', l'', v′, v''), TiTa 17(4) (d, l', l'', v′, v'', k, pl', pl'', p′, p'', tc′, tc'', ft′, ft'', s, pv′, pv'', φ1, φ2, ω1, ω2). Lengths of solenidia ω1 15–17, ω2 7–9, φ1 9–11, φ2 7–9; shape of solenidia as in non-phoretic female. Leg II (Figs 6B, 10D). Leg setation: Tr 1 (v′), Fe 3 (d, l', v''), Ge 3 (l', l'', v′), Ti 4(1) (d, l', v′, v'', φ), Ta 6(1) (pl'', tc′, tc'', pv′, pv'', u′, ω). Solenidion ω 9–11 digitiform; solenidion φ 4–5 weakly clavate, situated in deep depression and only distal half visible (Fig. 10D). Tarsal claws thickened basally; empodium long and narrow. All leg setae barbed; setae d of femur and u′ of tarsus blunt-tipped, other leg setae pointed. Leg III (Fig. 7A). Leg setation: Tr 1 (v′), F2 3 (d, v′), Ge 2 (l', v′), Ti 4(1) (d, l', v′, v'', φ), Ta 6 (pl'', tc′, tc'', pv′, pv'', u′). Claws, empodium and solenidion φ 4 as on tarsus II. All leg setae barbed; setae d, v′ of femur, l' of genu, and u′ of tarsus blunt-tipped, other leg setae pointed. Leg IV (Fig. 7B). Leg setation: Tr 1 (v′), Fe 2 (d, v′), Ge 1 (v′), Ti 4(1) (d, l', v′, v'', φ), Ta 6 (pl'', tc′, tc'', pv′, pv'', u′). Empodium as on tarsi II and III; claws simple, hooked. Solenidion φ 3–4 situated in deep depression with terminal pore. All leg setae barbed; setae v′ of trochanter, d, v′ of femur, and d of tibia blunt-tipped, other leg setae pointed.

Larva and male unknown.

Material examined

Sixteen phoretic and seven non-phoretic females, Russia, city of Tyumen, Gagarin park, in nest of undetermined small mammal, 57°10′17.0″N 65°36′25.1″E, 10 October 2021, coll. A.A. Khaustov.

Material deposition

All examined materials are deposited in the mite collection of the Tyumen State University Museum of Zoology, Tyumen, Russia.

Remarks

Non-phoretic females of Pediculaster nidicolus are completely congruent with original description and undoubtedly conspecific with specimens from Austria. Phoretic females are very similar to P. altaicus Mahunka, 1969, described from the nest of Microtus sp. from Mongolia (Mahunka 1969). However, based on original description, P. altaicus has longer dorsal hysterosomal setae. For example, setae c2 are longer than distance between their bases (clearly shorter in P. nidicolus). However, the length of dorsal setae is highly variable in Pediculaster species and it could be a result of intraspecific variability. Potentially P. nidicolus could be a junior synonym of P. altaicus. The comparison of phoretic females of P. nidicolus with the type material of P. altaicus is necessary for the final clarification of the synonymy of these species.

Pediculaster nidicolus is recorded from Russia for the first time.

Key to phoretic females of Pediculaster of Palaearctic

Modified from Khaustov 2015; P. egypticus Omar, 2014, P. gallinae Zacher and Kandeel, 1986 and P. arabicus Zacher and Kandeel, 1986 are not included because of incomplete description; P. limosinae Samšińak, 1984, P. incompletus Samšińak, 1984 and P. kaszabi Mahunka, 1970a not included as suspected synonyms of P. sellickianus, P. morelliae and P. dominguesi, respectively.

1. Coxisternal fields I with two pairs of setae (1c absent)
...... 2

— Coxisternal fields I with three pairs of setae
...... 5

2. Ap5 well-developed
...... 3

— Ap5 absent
...... P. minagarici Gao and Zou, 2000

3. Dorsal hysterosomal setae relatively short: setae d distinctly shorter than distance dd
...... 4

— Dorsal hysterosomal setae very long: setae d distinctly longer than distance dd
...... P. arcanus (Rack, 1967)

4. Setae e and h2 subequal, setae v1 more than three times longer than v2
...... P. subarcanus Gao and Zou, 2000

— Setae e about three times longer than h2, setae v1 less than two times longer than v2
...... P. ermilovi Khaustov, 2015

5. Setae (u) of tibiotarsus I fused together forming structure opposing to tarsal claw
...... 6

— Setae (u) of tibiotarsus I separated, spine-like
...... P. amerahae Sevastianov and Abo-Korah, 1984

6. Coxisternal fields II with two pairs of setae
...... 7

— Coxisternal fields II with three pairs of setae
...... 15

7. Setae e present
...... 8

— Setae e absent
...... P. absentia Rahiminejad and Seyedein, 2021

8. Setae h2 shorter than h1
...... 9

— Setae h2 about two times longer than h1
...... P. manicatus (Berlese, 1904)

9. Setae v1 and v2 subequal
...... 10

— Setae v1 longer than v2
...... 12

10. Stigmata two-chambered, trochanter IV with seta v′
...... 11

— Stigmata one-chambered, trochanter IV without seta v′
...... P. bisetus Khaustov, 2020

11. Ap5 long, reaching almost to bases of setae 4b, setae e about five times longer than h2
...... P. athiasae (Wicht, 1970)

— Ap5 short, reaching to bases of setae 4a, setae e about three times longer than h2
...... P. sterculinicola Sevastianov, 1981

12. Empodia on tarsi II and III with rounded tips, setae f shorter or subequal to h1
...... 13

— Empodia on tarsi II and III with pointed tips, setae f much longer than h1
...... P. mendli Rack, 1976

13. Setae f and h1 subequal
...... 14

— Setae f distinctly shorter than whip-like h1
...... P. weidneri Rack, 1976

14. Solenidion φ1 situated close to ω1
...... P. pfefferianus Samšińak, 1984

— Solenidion φ1 situated close to φ2
...... P. muraiae Mahunka and Zaki, 1984

15. Setae tc'' of tarsus IV situated on distinct protuberance
...... 16

— Setae tc'' of tarsus IV not on protuberance
...... 17

16. Setae h1 long, whip-like, much longer than f
...... P. calcaratus (Mahunka, 1965)

— Setae h1 short, blunt-tipped, subequal to f
...... P. ensifer (Savulkina, 1978)

17. Three pairs of pseudanal setae
...... 18

— Two pairs of pseudanal setae
...... P. turkiensis (Ramaraju and Madanlar, 1997)

18. Setae ps3 distinctly longer than ps1 and ps2
...... 19

— Setae ps2 distinctly longer than ps1 and ps3
...... 31

19. Setae ps1 and ps2 subequal
...... 20

— Setae ps1 distinctly shorter than ps2
...... P. sklarii Sevastianov and Chydyrov, 1994

20. Setae v1 subequal to or longer than v2
...... 21

— Setae v1 distinctly shorter than v2
...... P, hungaricus Mahunka and Zaki, 1982

21. Setae v1 distinctly longer than v2
...... 22

— Setae v1 subequal to v2
...... 23

22. Setae 2b about two times longer than 2a
...... P. janvaryorum Mahunka, 1986

— Setae 2b extremely long, many times longer than 2a
...... P. mongolicus Mahunka, 1970a

23. Setae e and h2 subequal
...... 24

— Setae e distinctly longer than h2
...... 25

24. Setae 2b much longer than 2a
...... P. dudichi Mahunka, 1970b

— Setae 2b and 2a subequal
...... P. ignotus (Krczal, 1959)

25. Setae 2b no longer, or slightly longer than 2a
...... 27

— Setae 2b several times longer than 2a
...... 26

26. Setae sc2, c2, f and h1 pointed, ap5 absent, seta ps2 situated on the same transverse level as ps1, setae d on femur and tibia IV very long and exceed beyond tip of tarsus
...... P. chistyakovi Khaustov and Ermilov, 2008

— Setae sc2, c2, f and h1 blunt-tipped, ap5 present, seta ps2 situated distinctly anteriad ps1, setae d on femur and tibia IV not exceed beyond tip of tarsus
...... P. rarus Khaustov, 2020

27. Bases of setae h1 situated very close to bases of h2
...... 28

— Bases of setae h1 and h2 distinctly separated
...... 29

28. Ap5 present, solenidion φ1 situated closer to setae p'' than to solenidion φ2
...... P. dudinskii Khaustov, 2011

— Ap5 absent, solenidion φ1 situated close to solenidion φ2
...... P. zachvatkini (Savulkina, 1978)

29. Setae 3a, 3b, and 4a long, reaching bases of subsequent posterior setae
...... 30

— Setae 3a, 3b, and 4a short, not reaching bases of subsequent posterior setae
...... P. similis Mahunka, 1975

30. Setae c2 longer than distance between their bases
...... P. altaicus Mahunka, 1969

— Setae c2 shorter than distance between their bases
...... P. nidicolus (Mahunka, 1972)

31. Hysterosomal tergites without longitudinal wrinkles
...... 32

— Hysterosomal tergites with distinct longitudinal wrinkles
...... P. rugosus Mahunka, 1973

32. Setae 2a no longer than 2b
...... 34

— Setae 2a much longer than 2b
...... 33

33. Setae c1 and c2 subequal, ap5 absent, setae e more than three times longer than h2
...... P. sellnickianus (Rack, 1964)

— Setae c2 longer tnan c1, ap5 present, setae e less than three times longer than h2
...... P. tjumeniensis Khaustov, 2020

34. Setae 2b distinctly longer than 2a
...... 35

— Setae 2b and 2a subequal
...... 37

35. Stigmata two-chambered
...... 36

— Stigmata one-chambered
...... P. portatus (Martin, 1978)

36. Ap5 absent, setae d, f, and h1 much shorter than distance between their bases
...... P. muscarius (Martin, 1978)

— Ap5 present, setae d, f, and h1 longer than distance between their bases
...... P. neutarii Khaustov, Lee, Lee and Kim, 2014

37. Empodia on tarsi II and III distinctly thickened distally, relatively short
...... 38

— Empodia on tarsi II and III long and narrow
...... P. meszarosi Mahunka, 1973

38. Setae f longer than e
...... 39

— Setae f and e subequal
...... P. morelliae Rack, 1974

39. Setae v1 at least 2.5 times longer than v2
...... 40

— Setae v1 no more than 1.5 times longer than v2
...... 43

40. Stigmata one-chambered
...... 41

— Stigmata two-chambered
...... P. malyi Samšińak, 1989

41. Ap5 absent
...... 42

— Ap5 present
...... P. kneeboni (Wicht, 1970)

42. Setae ps1 and ps3 subequal, tibiotarsus I about three times longer than its width
...... P. camerikae Khaustov, 2008b

— Setae ps1 longer than ps3, tibiotarsus I about 1.5 times longer than its width
...... P. eccoptomeralis Camerik, 2010

43. Solenidion φ1 situated laterally between bases of setae pl'' and l''
...... 44

— Solenidion φ1 situated close to solenidion φ2 or ω1
...... 47

44. Setae c1 shorter or subequal to d
...... 45

— Setae c1 longer than d
...... P. confusus Khaustov, 2008b

45. Ap5 absent
...... 46

— Ap5 present
...... P. ghilarovi Sevastianov, 1988

46. Setae c1 subequal to distance c1c1, setae c2 distinctly longer than d
...... P. tauricus Khaustov, 2008b

— Setae c1 distinctly longer than distance c1c1, setae c2 subequal to d
...... P. amuriensis Sevastianov, Chydyrov and Marroch, 1994

47. Setae ps3 distinctly longer than ps1
...... 48

— Setae ps3 shorter or subequal to ps1
...... 49

48. Stigmata one-chambered
...... P. montanus Khaustov, 2008b

— Stigmata two-chambered
...... P. zacheri Sevastianov and Abo-Korah, 1984

49. Ap5 present
...... 50

— Ap5 absent
...... 52

50. Setae e at least half of length of setae f
...... 51

— Setae e shorter than half of length of setae f
...... P. helomyzalis Camerik, 2006

51. Setae of posterior sternal plate smooth
...... P. jaltensis Sevastianov, 1974

— Setae of posterior sternal plate barbed
...... P. dominguesi (Athias-Henriot, 1961)

52. Stigmata two-chambered
...... 53

— Stigmata one-chambered
...... 55

53. Setae e longer and thicker than h2
...... 54

— Setae e and h2 of similar width and length
...... P. martyani Khaustov, 2008b

54. Setae e only slightly shorter than f
...... P. moravicus Samšińak, 1984

— Setae e about two times shorter than f
...... P. pseudomanicatus Camerik, 2001

55. Setae e at least two times longer than h2
...... 56

— Setae e less than two times longer than h2
...... 60

56. Setae c2 no shorter than c1
...... 57

— Setae c2 shorter than c1
...... P. collinellularis Camerik, 2006

57. Distance ef less than half of distance ff
...... 58

— Distance ef at least half of distance ff
...... P. gautengensis Camerilk, 1996

58. Dorsal hysterosomal setae relatively long, setae c1 shorter than c2
...... 59

— Dorsal hysterosomal setae relatively short, setae c1 and c2 subequal
...... P. bureschi (Savulkina, 1978)

59. Setae f about two times longer than e
...... P. horricomus (Savulkina, 1978)

— Setae f no more 1/3 longer than e
...... P. microsaniae (Martin, 1978)

60. Setae e situated slightly posteriad bases of setae f
...... 61

— Setae e situated distinctly anteriad bases of setae f
...... P. lignarius Khaustov, 2015

61. Setae c1 subequal or longer than distance c1c1
...... 62

— Setae c1 shorter than distance c1c1
...... P. mesembrinae (Canestrini, 1881)

62. Setae f more than four times longer than e
...... 63

— Setae f no more than three times longer than e
...... P. rysanovi Samšińak, 1989

63. Setae tc'' of tarsus IV very long, whip-like, distinctly longer than combined length of genu, tibia and tarsus IV
...... P. koreensis (Mahunka and Rack, 1977)

— Setae tc'' of tarsus IV distinctly shorter than combined length of genu, tibia and tarsus IV
...... P. perottii Camerik and Coetzee, 1998

Acknowledgements

The author thank to Alexey Gubin (Tyumen State University, Russia) for the preparation of SEM photos. The research was supported by the cooperative agreement No. FEWZ-2021-0004, funded by the Russian Ministry of Science and Higher Education.



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Article editorial history
Date received:
2022-02-03
Date accepted:
2022-03-24
Date published:
2022-03-28

Edited by:
Auger, Philippe

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
2022 Khaustov, Alexander A.
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