1Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University; Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, P. R. China & Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region; Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pest in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People's Republic of China, Guiyang 550025, P. R. China.
2Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University; Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, P. R. China & Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region; Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pest in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People's Republic of China, Guiyang 550025, P. R. China.
3Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University; Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, P. R. China & Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region; Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pest in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People's Republic of China, Guiyang 550025, P. R. China.
4✉ Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University; Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, P. R. China & Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region; Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pest in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People's Republic of China, Guiyang 550025, P. R. China.
2021 - Volume: 61 Issue: 1 pages: 46-54https://doi.org/10.24349/acarologia/20214416
The genus Antennoseius Berlese, 1916 includes 59 species in two subgenera, Antennoseius (34 species) and Vitzthumia (19 species), and six species without subgeneric status indicated (Kazemi 2018; Moraes et al. 2016). The tibia III usually bears eight setae and lack of pretarsus and claws on leg I in Antennoseius, while there are nine setae on tibia III and pretarsus and claws on leg I in Vitzthumia (Ryke 1962; Bregetova 1977, Lindquist & Walter 1989). Previous to this, three species have been reported from China, namely A. ningxiaensis Bai & Ma, 2006, A. (A.) alexandrovi Bregetova, 1977 and A. (A.) sinicus Guo & Gu, 1997, that the latter two species identified as junior synonyms of A. (A.) avius Karg, 1977 and A. (A.) hispaniensis Bernhard, 1963, respectively by Kazemi (2018) (Bai & Ma 2006; Guo & Gu 1997; Kazemi 2018; Ma & Yin 2006). Hosts/habitat and location of them are showed in table 1.
The species of Antennoseius have been found in different habitats, occur in soil, salt marshes, rotting plant, litter, moss, carabid beetles, as well as in nests of mouse, birds and ants (Bai & Ma 2006; Beaulieu et al. 2008; Faraji et al.. 2017; Kazemi 2018). In a field survey of soil mites in southwest China, the specimens belonging to the subgenus Vitzthumia were found, representing the first record of the subgenus Vitzthumia from China and a new species to science. This paper aims to describe it as well as clearing the taxonomic status of Antennoseius ningxiaensis Bai & Ma 2006 by examining the holotype.
Mites were extracted from shed leaves samples using modified Tullgren funnels equipped with 40 Watt bulbs, and preserved in 75% alcohol. Mites were cleared in Nesbitt's solution and then mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium (Krantz & Walter 2009). Line drawings were prepared with the aid of a drawing tube attached to a Nikon Ni E microscope and figures were edited with Adobe Photoshop CC 2018. All measurements were taken with the software (Nikon NIS Elements AR 4.50) and given in micrometres (μm).
Idiosoma lengths were measured along their midlines. Setae were measured from the bases of their insertion to their tips. Legs I–IV were measured from the base of coxa to the distal tip of the tarsus excluding the pretarsus (stalk, claws and pulvillus). The palps were measured from the base of the trochanter to the apex of the tarsus. The idiosomal setal nomenclature follows Lindquist & Evans (1965) with modifications for the posterior region as given by Lindquist (1994). Leg setal notation and palp chaetotaxy are based on Evans (1963a) and Evans (1963b). Distinction between gland pores and poroids (lyrifissures) follows Athias-Henriot (1971, 1975); notation for pore-like structures on the idiosoma mostly follows Kazemi et al.. (2014).
Type species Antennoseius delicatus Berlese, 1916
Antennoseius. ningxiaensis Bai & Ma, 2006: 555
Specimens examined — Holotype, female, from ant Myrmos sp. nest, Zhongwei County (37°5′ N, 105°1′ E), Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, by Xue-Li Bai, 29 July 1989. Deposited at Institute of Microbial Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, China.
Remarks — Antennoseius ningxiaensis was originally described by Bai & Ma (2006) based on one female from Ant Myrmos sp. nest in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, but the subgeneric status of the species was not clear. Here, we examined the holotype of the species and observed the absence of pretarsus and claws on leg I and tibia III with eight setae. Therefore, we consider it a species belong to the subgenus Antennoseius.
Type species Vitzthumia oudemansi Thor, 1930
Holotype, female (slide No. 2019050923A), from leaf litter of subtropical forest, Tangjiahe National Nature Reserve (32°35′41″ N, 104°49′37″ E), altitude 1,444 m, Sichuan Province, China, by Yun Long, 9 May 2019. Paratypes, one female (slide No. 2019050923B), the same date as the holotype. All types are deposited at the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, P. R. China (GUGC).
Dorsal shield with reticulate ornamentation. Podonotal shield with 20 pairs of setae, of which j2–j4, z2 short, strongly thickened and spur-like, j1 short and barbed distally. Opisthonotal shield with 15 pairs of setae, of which J3–J5, Z3–Z5, S2–S5 barbed distally, Z5 about twice as long as others. Anterior margin of sternal shield slightly convex, postero-laterally eroded, with median process, st1, st3, iv3 and st4 in soft cuticle. Setae st5 on epigynal shield. Deutosternum with seven rows of denticles, each with 6–12 denticles, and first to sixth rows connected with lateral margins of deutosternal groove. Seta pc greatly swollen with fine distal tip. Anterior margin of epistome slightly convex and denticulate, dorsal surface of epistome with a transverse row of denticles. Setae av and pv on coxa I and pv on coxa II obviously swollen with fine distal tip. Tibia III with eight setae (pl2 absent).
Female (Figures1–4) (n = 2)
Dorsum — (Figure 1A, 4A). Idiosoma oval, length 568–576, width 322–331 at level of seta r5, dorsal shields with reticulate ornamentation. Podonotal shield length 309–314, width 286–293 at level of seta r2, with 20 pairs of setae (j1–j6, z1–z6, s1–s6, r2, x), of which j2–j4, z2 short, strongly thickened and spur-like (Figure 4A), j1 short and barbed distally, and nine pairs of discernable pores-like structure (four pairs of gland pores and five pair of poroids). Opisthonotal shield length 291–302, width 260–268 at level of setae J1, with 15 pairs of setae and 12 pairs of discernable pore-like structures (three pairs of gland pores and nine pairs of poroids), of which J3–J5, Z3–Z5, S2–S5 barbed distally and Z5 about twice as long as others. Three pairs of r setae (r3–r6), six pairs of R setae (R1–R6) and one unpaired seta (Rx) located on lateral soft cuticle (only one specimen with RX) (Figures 1A). Length of setae: j1 (16–17), j2 (12–13), j3 (12–13), j4 (12–13), j5 (33–36), j6 (36–37), z1 (15–17), z2 (11–12), z3 (34–35), z4 (34–35), z5 (35–36), z6 (36–37), s1 (29–30), s2 (26–28), s3 (28–30), s4 (33–34), s5 (34–35), s6 (34–36), x (32–33), r2 (23–24), r3 (19–20), r4 (19–22), r5 (20–21), r6 (16–18), J1 (36–38), J2 (34–35), J3 (35–36), J4 (36–37), J5 (38–39), Z1 (34–35), Z2 (34–35), Z3 (35–36), Z4 (36–37), Z5 (66–68), S1 (31–33), S2 (34–35), S3 (33–34), S4 (37–39), S5 (43–46), R1 (14–15), R2 (16–17); R3 (15–17), R4 (15–16); R5 (16–17), R6 (16–17); UR (14–18), Rx (16).
Venter — (Figures 1B, 4B). Base of tritosternum approximately columnar (15–16 long, 13–14 wide), with paired plumose laciniae (fused basally for 12–13 long, free for 77–79). Presternal with irregularly transverse line and one pair of weak sclerotized platelets. Sternal shield length 122–127 (along the midline, including the postero-median process), width 100–103 at level of seta st2, bearing setae st2 and two pairs of lyrifissures (iv1, iv2) and one pair gland pores gvb, anterior margin slightly convex, postero-laterally eroded, with median process, posterior edge sinuous and anticlinal (one specimen) or truncate (one specimen), with weak lineate pattern; st1 inserted on soft cuticle anterior to sternal shield, iv3, st3 and st4 on streaked soft cuticle. Epigynal shield spatulate, with weak lineate pattern, length 133–139, width 42–45 at level of seta st5, posterior margin rounded; st5 on and iv5 off epigynal shield. With two pairs endopodal strips, anterior pair between coxae II and III, posterior pair between coxae III and IV parallel to epigynal shield. Opisthosomatic venter with two pairs of metapodal platelets, one smaller pairs close to posterior edge of peritrematal plate, the larger pairs approximately roundness; with one pairs platelets between genital and anal shield. Anal shield peach shaped, length 116–118 and width 95–98 at level of seta pa, with faintly lineate ornamented, bearing three simple circum-anal setae and one pair gland pores gv3, of which para-anal setae (pa) almost at level of anterior margin of anal opening, slightly shorter than post-anal seta (po). Opisthogaster setae number unequal on left and right of soft cuticle beside anal shield, 20 setae on left and 16 setae on right (Figures 1B, 4B). Length of setae: st1 (20–24), st2 (17–20), st3 (17–20), st4 (17–18), st5 (18–19), JV1 (13–16), JV2 (20–21), JV3 (22–23), JV4 (20–21), JV5 (29–30), ZV1 (16–18), ZV2 (20–21), ZV3 (19–20), ZV4 (20–22), ZV5 (19–20), pa (16–17), po (21–22); other setae14–18 long.
Peritreme — (Figure 1B). Elongate, extending from stigma almost to z1 level near to anterior end of dorsum. Peritrematal shield broad, fused with exopodal shield along coxae I–IV, with one pair gland pore gp and two pairs of poroid ip (Figure 1B).
Legs — (Figures 2A–2E, 4C, 4D). Leg lengths: leg I (619–623), leg II (388–392), leg III (374–375), leg IV (485–497). Tarsus I with four long and slender apical setae, with small pretarsus and claws (Figure 2B). Trochanters I with one, femur I with three and genu I with one spur-like setae (Figures 2A, 4C). Tibia III with eight setae (pl2 absent). Pretarsi II–IV each with a pair of claws, anterior pulvilli terminally rounded (Figures 2C–2E). Setae av and pv on coxae I and pv on coxae II greatly swollen with fine distal tip (Figures 2A, 2C, 4D). Seta av1 on trochanters III and IV also obviously swollen, with fine distal tip (Figures 2D, 2E). Most dorsal setae, some antero-lateral and postero-lateral setae on legs II–IV sparsely barbed. Chaetotaxy of legs I–IV, respectively: coxae 2, 2, 2, 1; trochanters 6 (1 1/3 1), 5 (1 0/3 1), 5(1 1/3 0), 5(1 1/3 0); femora 12 (2 5/3 2), 11 (2 5/3 1), 6 (1 3/1 1), 6 (1 4/1 0); genua 13 (2 6/3 2), 11 (2 5/2 2), 9 (2 4/2 1), 9 (2 5/1 1); tibiae 13 (2 6/3 2), 10 (2 4/2 2), 8 (2 3/2 1), 10 (2 4/2 2).
Gnathosoma — (Figures 3A–3D, 4D). Hypostomal setae h1–h3 simple and smooth, h1 (34–35) significantly longer than h2 (18–19) and h3 (16–17), h3 slightly anterior to h2; palpcoxal seta pc (15–16) significantly swollen and with fine distal tip (Figures 3A, 4D). Corniculi slightly stout, hornlike, parallel, slightly beyond tip of internal malae. Deutosternum moderately wide, with seven rows of denticles, each row with 6–12 denticles, of which first to sixth rows connected by lateral margins of deutosternal groove (Figure 3A). Anterior margin of epistome slightly convex and denticulate, dorsal surface of epistome with a transverse row of denticles (Figure 3C). Second segment of chelicera 69–71 long, width 29-31 at basal level of second segment of chelicera; fixed digit (47–48) with 12 teeth in addition to apical hook, and setiform pilus dentilis; dorsal cheliceral seta relatively long and thickened; movable digit (46-47) with two teeth in addition to apical hook and fringe-like processes at the base, with a paraxial ridge leading to a ventral projection; antiaxial lyrifissure and dorsal lyrifissure evident (Figure 3D). Palp length 173–176, trochanter with simple setae v1 and v2, femur with five simple setae (d1, d2, d3, pl and al), genu with six setae (d1, d2, d3, al1, al2 and pl1); palp apotele two-tined (Figure 3B).
The species name heterochaetus refers to the dorsal shield with several different types of setae.
1. Leg I with pretarsus and claws – subgenus Vitzthumia – Podonotal shield with four pairs of setae strongly thickened, short, smooth and spur-like; st1, st3 off sternal shield
...... .A. (Vitzthumia) heterochaetus n. sp.
— Leg I lacking pretarsus and claws – subgenus Antennoseius – Most setae of podonotal shield similar in length and shape, without spur-like setae; st1, st3 on sternal shield
2. Opisthonotal shield with five unpaired setae Jx, and S series more than 5 pairs of setae
...... A. (A) ningxiaensis Ma & Yin 2006
— Opisthonotal shield without unpaired setae Jx, and S series 5 pairs of setae
3. Anterior margin of tectum with three wide serrate protrusions; setae j1 fan-shape, considerably wider than other dorsal setae, j1 width more than half of its length; fixed digit of chelicerae with several small denticles
...... A. (A.) avius Karg, 1977
— Anterior margin of tectum convex, finely denticulate, without distinct protrusions; setae j1 leaf-like, slightly wider than other dorsal setae, j1 width at most one third of its length; fixed digit of chelicerae with a small subapical tooth and a chitinized edge on the inner margin, devoid of denticles
...... A. (A.) hispaniensis Bernhard, 1963
Antennoseius (Vitzthumia) heterochaetus Long & Yi n. sp. resembles A. perseus Beaulieu, 2008 (smooth morph) in the shape of setae ad1, pd1 on femur I, pd2 on genu I (spine-like) and seta pc (greatly swollen and with fine distal tip), sternal shield (postero-laterally eroded and with median process), seta st3 location (on soft cuticle), dorsal shield smoothly reticulate, number of setae on tibia III (eight setae, pl2 absent) and podonotal shield (20 pairs). The new species can be differentiated from A. perseus by the following characters. In the new species, j2–j4, z2 spur-like, one spine-like setae on genu I, setae av and pv on coxae I greatly swollen with fine distal tip, seta av1 on trochanters III and IV also obviously swollen with fine distal tip, and j1 barbed distally; while in the latter setae j2–j5, z2 spur-like, two spine-like setae on genu I with, setae av or pv on coxae I evidently swollen and with fine distal tip, setae av1 on trochanters III and IV normal, and j1 acicular and smooth. Antennoseius heterochaetus also resembles A. bregetovae Chelebiev, 1984. Both of them have four pairs of spur-like setae of the j and/or z series on podonotal shield, three circum-anal setae on anal shield, and smoothly reticulate on dorsal shield. The new species can be differentiated from A. bregetovae by the following characters. The new species has 20 pairs of setae on podonotal shield, of which j2–j4, z2 are spur-like, three spine-like setae on femur I, and setae st3 locate on soft cuticle, sternal shield postero-laterally eroded, with median process; while the latter has 18 pairs (j3–j5, z3 are spur-like), one spine-like seta on femur I, and setae st3 locate on sternal shield, sternal shield normal.
Most of species of the genus Antennoseius are associated with carabid beetles. However, there is no relevant research in China. The future research should be focused on different habitats in China.
We express our thanks to two reviewers and Shahrooz Kazemi (Department of Biodiversity, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran) for their insightful comments on the manuscript, to Dr. Bruce Halliday (Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra, Australia) offered the helps for references, and to Xue-Li Bai (Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China), Tong-Yan Zhao and Ming-Yu Wu (Institute of Microbial Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, China) for their helps in checking the type of A. (A) ningxiaensis. Tian-Ci Yi's work was supported by the Provincial Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, 5641.
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