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A new species of Parabonzia (Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae) based on adults and nymphs with a key to the world species

Chen, Jian-Xin1 ; Guo, Jian-Jun2 ; Yi, Tian-Ci3 and Jin, Dao-Chao4

1Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou,550025, P.R. China & Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region, Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pest in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the P. R. China, Guiyang 550025. P. R. China.
2Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou,550025, P.R. China & Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region, Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pest in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the P. R. China, Guiyang 550025. P. R. China.
3✉ Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou,550025, P.R. China & Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region, Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pest in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the P. R. China, Guiyang 550025. P. R. China.
4✉ Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou,550025, P.R. China & Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region, Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pest in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the P. R. China, Guiyang 550025. P. R. China.

2020 - Volume: 60 Issue: 4 pages: 806-824

https://doi.org/10.24349/acarologia/20204402
ZooBank LSID: DB8185E9-4AB6-4A46-94AE-D5834E2BD67C

Original research

Keywords

mites Bdelloidea taxonomy China

Abstract

A new species, namely Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., is described from China, based on female, male, tritonymph, deutonymph and protonymph. A key to adult females of Parabonzia species of the world is provided.


Introduction

The genus Parabonzia was erected by Smiley (1975) for Bonzia bdelliformis Atyeo (1958) as the type species, belongs to the subfamily Bonziinae and the family Cunaxidae Thor (1902). Den Heyer (1975, 1977), Smiley (1992), Corpuz-Raros (1996) and Lin & Zhang (1998, 2002) added six species, namely, P. marthae (Den Heyer, 1975), P. athiasae Den Heyer (1977), P. mumai Smiley (1992), P. mindanensis Corpuz-Raros (1996), P. trioxys Lin & Zhang (1998), P. zhangi Lin & Zhang (2002). Recently, Khaustov (2020) described a species, P. sibiriensis, from Western Siberia, Russia which increased the known species to eight in this genus. Herein, we present the description of a new species of this genus collected from Shunhuangshan National Nature Reserve, Xinning County, Hunan Province, China.

Materials and methods

Samples of rotten wood were collected from Shunhuangshan National Nature Reserve, Xinning County, Hunan Province. Collected samples were placed into Berlese-Tullgren funnels for 8–12 hours, and mites were extracted from the samples, preserved in 75% alcohol and then mounted on slides in Hoyer's medium (Krantz and Walter 2009). Line drawings were prepared with the aid of a drawing tube attached to the microscope Nikon Ni E and photographs were taken using a camera (Nikon DS-Ri 2) attached to the microscope. All figures were edited with Adobe Photoshop CC 2019. Measurements (given in micron µm) were taken using the software Nikon NIS Elements AR 4.50 and provided for the holotype followed by measurements of the range of paratypes in parentheses. The dorsal and ventral setal notations follow Skvarla et al. (2014), and those of legs follow Den Heyer (1981).

Abbreviations: ag—aggenital seta, at—anterior trichobothria, asl—attenuate solenidion, bsl—blunt rod-like solenidion, dtsl—dorsoterminal solenidion, eu—eugenital seta, fam—famulus (= peg organ), hg—hypognathal seta, hgs—hysterogastral seta, lps—lateral proterosomal seta, mps—median proterosomal seta, pa—para-anal seta, ppgs—propodogastral seta, ps—pseudanal seta, pt—posterior trichobothria, sts—simple tactile seta, T—trichobothrium, tsl—terminal solenidion.

Results

Cunaxidae Thor, 1902

Bonziinae Den Heyer, 1977

Parabonzia Smiley, 1975

Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov. (Figures 1–21)

ZOOBANK: 2C380B60-BE0F-429B-A119-6E32063195EC

Diagnosis — Hysterosomal median shield with four pairs of setae (c1, c2, d1, e1); palp telofemur with one branched (4 tines) seta; genital plates with eight pairs of genital setae; setal formula of coxal plates I–IV: 6-6-7-7 sts; genu III and genu IV with one and two asl setae respectively; tibia III with one bsl seta.

Description

Female (n = 21; Figures 1–7) Idiosoma 200 (200–246) long, 120 (108–150) wide (Figures 1–2).

Figure 1. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., female: A – dorsal of entire body; B – ventral of entire body. Scale represents 100 μm.

Figure 2. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., female: A – dorsal idiosoma; B – ventral idiosoma. Scale represents 100 μm.

Figure 3. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., female: A – prodorsum; B – hysterosomal (median) shield; C – opisthosoma; D – coxae plates I and II; E – hysterosoma anterior part, venter; F – genital and anal region. Scale represents 50 μm.

Figure 4. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., female: A – one additional seta close to 1b is present on the right coxa I; B – genital and anal region. Scale represents 50 μm.

Figure 5. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., female: A – palp; B – chelicerae; C – subcapitulum. Scale represents 100 μm.

Figure 6. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., female: A – palp telofemur branched (4 tines) seta; B–D – subcapitulum, venter. Scale represents 50 μm.

Figure 7. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., female: A–D – leg I–IV respectively. Scale represents 100 μm.

Dorsum (Figures 1A, 2A, 3A–C) — Propodosomal shield trapezoid and papillae, 67 (57–75) long, 83 (85–88) wide, bearing two pairs of trichobothria (at and pt), two pairs of tactile setae (lps and mps) (Figures 2A and 3A). The bases of at and pt cup-shaped, lps near at, at slightly longer than pt, lps longer than mps, and mps almost on the line of pt. Lateral area outside propodosomal shield with papillate striation. Hysterosoma with one inverted trapezoidal median shield, covered with random papillae, 59 (57–65) long, 80 (73–84) wide, and with four pairs of setae (c1, c2, d1, e1) (Figures 1A, 2A, 3B). Areas laterally to median shield with longitudinal papillate striation and two pairs of cupules (ia and im) (Figures 2A and 3B). Area posterior to median shield with transverse papillate striation, one pair of cupules (ip) and four pairs of setae (f1, f2, h1, h2), of which f1 and h1 arising from platelets (Figures 2A and 3C). Setal lengths and distances: at 93 (93–98), pt 80 (74–80), lps 34 (31–34), mps 23 (20–25), c1 21 (21–22), c2 22 (19–22), d1 22 (22–24), e1 26 (22–26), f1 24 (21–24), f2 19 (17–19), h1 26 (25–28), h2 18 (17–20); at-at 23 (21–27), pt-pt 34 (34–42), lps-lps 47 (45–54), mps-mps 15 (15–18), lps-mps 36 (30–44), at-lps 19 (18–25), pt-mps 9 (9–12), pt-lps 32 (32–39), at-mps 50 (48–60), at-pt 49 (46–61), c1-c1 27 (26–33), c2-c2 75 (75–97), d1-d1 41 (41–52), e1-e1 27 (27–40), f1-f1 16 (15–22), f2-f2 33 (30–41), h1-h1 13 (10–16), h2-h2 33 (32–45), c1-c2 25 (25–34), c1-d1 24 (24–32), c2-d1 29 (29–38), d1-e1 25 (25–31), e1-f1 25 (25–38), e1-f2 26 (26–41), f1-h1 21 (21–36), f1-h2 29 (27–44), f2-h1 22 (18–35), f2-h2 23 (18–36), f1-f2 8 (8–12), h1-h2 10 (9–18).

Venter (Figures 1B, 2B, 3D–F, 4A–B) — Ventral area between the gnathosoma and coxae II, coxal plates I–IV, and genital plates with random papillae. Coxae I–II fused and coxae III–IV also fused. Area between coxae II and ppgs with transverse papillate striation; area between coxae III–IV groups with curved longitudinal papillate striation forming the shape of the letter ’’X’’; area outside genital plates and anal region with slightly curved longitudinal papillate striation. Setal formula of coxal plates I–IV: 6-6-7-7 sts; one pair of propodogastral setae (ppgs), 7 (7–8) in length, and two pairs of hysterogastral setae, hgs1 and hgs2, 7 (7–8) and 7 (6–9) in length respectively. Genital plates long 35 (33–37), wide 20 (16–22), two pairs of visible genital papillae, eight pairs of genital setae (g1g8), 7 (7–8), 6 (7–8), 7 (6–8), 6 (6–8), 7 (6–8), 7 (6–7), 6 (6–6), 6 (6–7) in length, respectively; one pair of eugenital setae (eu) 10 (10–11) in length; five pairs of aggenital setae (ag1ag5), 6 (7–8), 5 (5–10), 7 (7–10), 6 (6–8), 6 (6–9) in length, respectively. Anal region with one pair of pseudanal setae (ps1), 7 (7–10) in length, four pairs of para-anal setae (pa1pa4), 19 (17–20), 20 (12–20), 10 (10–13), 7 (7–10) in length, respectively, and one pair of lyrifissures (ih).

Gnathosoma (Figures 5A–C, 6A–D) — Palp (Figures 5A, 6A). Five-segmented, 118 (104–126) long, all segments with papillae. Palpal chaetotaxy: trochanter without setae; basifemur with two simple setae (one ventral and one dorsal); telofemur with one distally branched (4 tines) seta; genu with four simple setae (two ventral and two dorsal); tibiotarsus with one smooth sigmoid seta, one rod-like solenidion and five smooth simple setae; terminal claw absent. Chelicera (Figure 5B) 117 (114–126) long, with papillae, and ended in a developed cheliceral digit 8 (6–12) in length; cheliceral seta short, 3 (2–3) in length, arising near the base of cheliceral digit. Subcapitulum (Figures. 5C, 6B–D) 96 (95–123) long, 51 (51–66) wide and without adoral setae; with six pairs of hypognathal setae (hg), hg1 the longest and slightly curved; hg1hg6 45 (40–46), 20 (18–22), 11 (10–13), 14 (14–19), 12 (10–12) and 10 (8–10) in length, respectively. Distances of hg setae: hg1-hg1 7 (4–8), hg2-hg2 7 (7–10), hg3-hg3 11 (11–14), hg4-hg4 48 (47–49), hg5-hg5 13 (13–16), hg6-hg6 46 (37–44), hg1-hg2 9 (9–11), hg2-hg3 19 (19–21), hg3-hg4 21 (18–21) , hg4-hg5 14 (14–17), hg5-hg6 14 (12–14).

Legs (Figure 7A–D) — Lengths of leg I–IV: 124 (124–135), 113 (113–117), 128 (118–132), 135 (134–146). Lengths of tarsus I–IV: 43 (42–48), 40 (41–43), 40 (37–43), 40 (38–45). T plumose on tibia IV 64 (64–68) in length. Legs I–IV chaetotaxy: coxae I–IV 6-6-7-7 sts; trochanters I–IV 1-1-2-1 sts; basifemora I–IV 4-7-3-2 sts; telofemora I–IV 5-5-4-3 sts. Genu I 4 asl, 5 sts; genu II 2 asl, 5 sts; genu III 1 asl, 6 sts; genu IV 2 asl, 6 sts. Tibia I 1 asl, 1 bsl, 6 sts; tibia II 6 sts; tibia III 1 bsl, 6 sts; tibia IV 1 plumose T, 6 sts. Tarsus I 2 asl, 3 bsl, 1 fam, 1 dtsl, 2 tsl, 18 sts; tarsus II 1 bsl, 1 dtsl, 1 tsl, 18 sts; tarsus III 1 dtsl, 14 sts; tarsus IV 1 dtsl, 12 sts.

Male (n = 1; Figures 8–11) Idiosoma 160 long and 107 wide. (Figures 8A–B, 9A–B)

Figure 8. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., male: A – dorsal of entire body; B – ventral of entire body. Scale represents 100 μm.

Figure 9. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., male: A – dorsal idiosoma; B – ventral idiosoma. Scale represents 100 μm.

Figure 10. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., male: A – palp; B – chelicerae; C – subcapitulum. Scale represents 100 μm.

Figure 11. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., male: A–D – leg I–IV respectively. Scale represents 100 μm.

Dorsum (Figures 8A, 9A) — Resembling that of the female; propodosomal shield 53 long, 73 wide, median shield 48 long, 63 wide, cupules (ia, im, ip) invisible, setal lengths and distances: at 72, pt 65, lps 26, mps 18, c1 19, c2 16, d1 18, e1 17, f1 17, f2 13, h1 18, h2 12; at-at 19, pt-pt 28, lps-lps 38, mps-mps 12, lps-mps 28, at-lps 17, pt-mps 8, pt-lps 24, at-mps 41, at-pt 36, c1-c1 20, c2-c2 63, d1-d1 32, e1-e1 21, f1-f1 9, f2-f2 20, h1-h1 8, h2-h2 22, c1-c2 24, c1-d1 21, c2-d1 25, d1-e1 20, e1-f1 13, e1-f2 14, f1-h1 17, f1-h2 20, f2-h1 16, f2-h2 17, f1-f2 5, h1-h2 9.

Venter (Figures 8B, 9B) — Eugenital setae (eu) and pseudanal setae (ps) absent; setal formula of coxal plates I–IV: 6-6-7-6 sts; propodogastral setae (ppgs) and hysterogastral setae (hgs1–hgs2) equal 7 in length. Genital plates long 29, wide 14, six pairs of genital setae (g1g6; only five setae on left plate), 6–7 in length; two pairs of aggenital setae (ag1ag2), 6 and 5 in length, respectively. Three pairs of para-anal setae (pa1pa3), 12, 12, 7 in length, respectively; lyrifissures (ih) invisible.

Gnathosoma (Figures 10A–C) — Resembling the female. Palp (Figure 10A) 105 long; trochanter without setae; basifemur with two simple setae (one ventral and one dorsal); telofemur with one distally branched (4 tines) seta; genu with four simple setae (two ventral and two dorsal); tibiotarsus with one smooth sigmoid seta, one rod-like solenidion and five smooth simple setae. Chelicera (Figure 10B) 107 long; cheliceral seta short, 3 in length. Subcapitulum (Figures 10C) 110 long, 60 wide; hg1hg6 40, 15, 10, 15, 9 and 8 in length, respectively. Distances of hg setae: hg1-hg1 7, hg2-hg2 9, hg3-hg3 11, hg4-hg4 47, hg5-hg5 13, hg6-hg6 34, hg1-hg2 9, hg2-hg3 21, hg3-hg4 15, hg4-hg5 14, hg5-hg6 8.

Legs (Figure 11A–D) — Resembling those of female; lengths of leg I–IV: 113, 98, 105, 118. Lengths of tarsus I–IV: 40, 33, 35, 38. T 57 in length. Legs I–IV chaetotaxy: coxae I–IV 6-6-7-6 sts; trochanters I–IV 1-1-2-1 sts; basifemora I–IV 4-7-3-2 sts; telofemora I–IV 5-5-4-3 sts. Genu I 4 asl, 5 sts; genu II 2 asl, 5 sts; genu III 1 asl, 6 sts; genu IV 2 asl, 6 sts. Tibia I 1 asl, 1 bsl, 6 sts; tibia II 6 sts; tibia III 1 bsl, 6 sts; tibia IV 1 plumed T, 6 sts. Tarsus I 2 asl, 3 bsl, 1 fam, 1 dtsl, 1 tsl, 17 sts; tarsus II 1 bsl, 1 dtsl, 1 tsl, 16 sts; tarsus III 1 dtsl, 14 sts; tarsus IV 1 dtsl, 13 sts.

Tritonymph (n = 1; Figures 12–14) Idiosoma 198 long, 130 wide.

Figure 12. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., tritonymph: A – dorsal idiosoma; B – ventral idiosoma. Scale represents 100 μm.

Figure 13. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., tritonymph: A – palp; B – chelicerae; C – subcapitulum. Scale represents 100 μm.

Figure 14. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., tritonymph: A–D – leg I–IV respectively. Scale represents 100 μm.

Dorsum (Figure 12A) — Resembling the female; propodosomal shield 56 long, 69 wide; median shield 55 long, 74 wide; setal lengths and distances: at 79, pt 64, lps 27, mps 17, c1 17, c2 16, d1 18, e1 20, f1 22, f2 14, h1 22, h2 15; at-at 21, pt-pt 30, lps-lps 44, mps-mps 14, lps-mps 34, at-lps 18, pt-mps 8, pt-lps 29, at-mps 41, at-pt 42, c1-c1 22, c2-c2 67, d1-d1 32, e1-e1 28, f1-f1 14, f2-f2 25, h1-h1 11, h2-h2 30, c1-c2 22, c1-d1 21, c2-d1 25, d1-e1 20, e1-f1 32, e1-f2 36, f1-h1 25, f1-h2 36, f2-h1 23, f2-h2 32, f1-f2 7, h1-h2 13.

Venter (Figure 12B) — Setal formula of coxal plates I–IV: 5-5-6-5 sts; propodogastral setae (ppgs) and hysterogastral setae (hgs1) equal 7 in length. Genital plates long 30, wide 14; five pairs of genital setae (g1g5), 6–7 in length; one pairs of aggenital setae (ag1), 6 in length. Three pairs of para-anal setae (pa1pa3), 15, 15, 7 in length, respectively.

Gnathosoma (Figures 13A–C) — Resembling the female. Palp (Figure 13A) 102 long; trochanter without setae; basifemur with two simple setae (one ventral and one dorsal); telofemur with one distally branched (4 tines) seta; genu with four simple setae (two ventral and two dorsal); tibiotarsus with one smooth sigmoid seta, one rod-like solenidion and five smooth simple setae. Chelicera (Figure 13B) 100 long; cheliceral seta short, 2 in length. Subcapitulum (Figures 13C) 98 long, 60 wide; hg1hg6 34, 14, 9, 13, 8 and 8 in length, respectively. Distances of hg setae: hg1-hg1 7, hg2-hg2 10, hg3-hg3 12, hg4-hg4 44, hg5-hg5 15, hg6-hg6 38, hg1-hg2 9, hg2-hg3 22, hg3-hg4 15, hg4-hg5 14, hg5-hg6 11.

Legs (Figure 14A–D) — Resembling the female; lengths of leg I–IV: 110, 98, 105, 108. Lengths of tarsus I–IV: 38, 33, 35, 34. T 54 in length. Legs I–IV chaetotaxy: coxae I–IV 5-5-6-5 sts; trochanters I–IV 1-1-2-1 sts; basifemora I–IV 4-5-2-0 sts; telofemora I–IV 5-5-4-3 sts. Genu I 4 asl, 5 sts; genu II 2 asl, 5 sts; genu III 1 asl, 6 sts; genu IV 2 asl, 5 sts. Tibia I 1 asl, 1 bsl, 6 sts; tibia II 6 sts; tibia III 1 bsl, 6 sts; tibia IV 1 plumose T, 4 sts. Tarsus I 1 asl, 3 bsl, 1 fam, 1 dtsl, 1 tsl, 14 sts; tarsus II 1 bsl, 1 dtsl, 1 tsl, 13 sts; tarsus III 1 dtsl, 14 sts; tarsus IV 1 dtsl, 11 sts.

Deutonymph (n = 1; Figures 15–18) Idiosoma 190 long, 135 wide.

Figure 15. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., deutonymph: A – dorsal idiosoma; B – ventral idiosoma. Scale represents 100 μm.

Figure 16. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., deutonymph: A – palp; B – chelicerae; C – subcapitulum. Scale represents 100 μm.

Figure 17. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., deutonymph: A – subcapitulum; B – palp telofemur branched (3 tines) seta. Scale represents 50 μm.

Figure 18. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., deutonymph: A–D – leg I–IV respectively. Scale represents 100 μm.

Dorsum (Figure 15A) — Resembling the female; propodosomal shield 72 long, 93 wide; median shield 59 long, 90 wide; setal lengths and distances: at 75, pt 67, lps 24, mps 17, c1 14, c2 13, d1 14, e1 17, f1 21, f2 14, h1 25, h2 17; at-at 24, pt-pt 40, lps-lps 50, mps-mps 15, lps-mps 37, at-lps 22, pt-mps 9, pt-lps 31, at-mps 50, at-pt 48, c1-c1 29, c2-c2 80, d1-d1 37, e1-e1 28, f1-f1 13, f2-f2 29, h1-h1 12, h2-h2 35, c1-c2 26, c1-d1 23, c2-d1 32, d1-e1 22, e1-f1 26, e1-f2 27, f1-h1 25, f1-h2 38, f2-h1 23, f2-h2 33, f1-f2 8, h1-h2 16.

Venter (Figure 15B) — Setal formula of coxal plates I–IV: 4-3-4-2 sts; propodogastral setae (ppgs) and hysterogastral setae (hgs1) equal 6 in length. Genital plates long 20, wide 10; three pairs of genital setae (g1g3), each 6 in length; one pairs of aggenital setae (ag1), 6 in length. Three pairs of para-anal setae (pa1pa3), 15, 12, 6 in length, respectively.

Gnathosoma (Figures 16A–C, 17A–B) — Palp (Figures 16A, 17B) 91 long; basifemur with only one seta, telofemur with one distally branched (3 tines) seta; genu with four simple setae (two ventral and two dorsal); tibiotarsus with one smooth sigmoid seta, one rod-like solenidion and five smooth simple setae. Chelicera (Figure 16B) 93 long; cheliceral seta 3 in length. Subcapitulum (Figures 16C, 17A) 90 long, 64 wide, four pairs of hypognathal setae (hg), hg1hg4, 21, 11, 9, 11 in length, respectively. Distances of hg setae: hg1-hg1 8, hg2-hg2 9, hg3-hg3 15, hg4-hg4 43, hg1-hg2 11, hg2-hg3 22, hg3-hg4 15.

Legs (Figure 18A–D) — Resembling the female; all legs with basifemora and telofemora fused, lengths of leg I–IV: 118, 100, 110, 120. Lengths of tarsus I–IV: 37, 30, 39, 39. T 48 in length. Legs I–IV chaetotaxy: coxae I–IV 4-3-4-2 sts; trochanters I–IV 1-1-2-1 sts; basifemora I–IV 2-2-1-0 sts; telofemora I–IV 5-5-4-3 sts. Genu I 3 asl, 5 sts; genu II 2 asl, 5 sts; genu III 1 asl, 5 sts; genu IV 1 asl, 5 sts. Tibia I 1 asl, 1 bsl, 5 sts; tibia II 5 sts; tibia III 1 bsl, 5 sts; tibia IV 1 plumose T, 4 sts. Tarsus I 1 asl, 3 bsl, 1 fam, 1 dtsl, 1 tsl, 13 sts; tarsus II 1 bsl, 1 dtsl, 15 sts; tarsus III 14 sts; tarsus IV 12 sts.

Protonymph (n = 1; Figures 19–21) Idiosoma 152 long, 113 wide.

Figure 19. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., protonymph: A – dorsal idiosoma; B – ventral idiosoma. Scale represents 100 μm.

Figure 20. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., protonymph: A – subcapitulum; B – palp telofemur branched (3 tines) seta. Scale represents 50 μm.

Figure 21. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., protonymph: A–D – leg I–IV respectively. Scale represents 100 μm.

Dorsum (Figure 19A) — Resembling the female; propodosomal shield 60 long, 73 wide; median shield 48 long, 80 wide; setal lengths and distances: at 68, pt 57, lps 20, mps 15, c1 12, c2 10, d1 13, e1 15, f1 22, f2 12, h1 24, h2 14; at-at 22, pt-pt 35, lps-lps 46, mps-mps 16, lps-mps 32, at-lps 19, pt-mps 9, pt-lps 28, at-mps 43, at-pt 43, c1-c1 24, c2-c2 73, d1-d1 31, e1-e1 25, f1-f1 13, f2-f2 24, h1-h1 9, h2-h2 24, c1-c2 23, c1-d1 20, c2-d1 29, d1-e1 22, e1-f1 28, e1-f2 31, f1-h1 24, f1-h2 30, f2-h1 22, f2-h2 25, f1-f2 8, h1-h2 9.

Venter (Figure 19B) — Setal formula of coxal plates I–IV: 3-3-3-1 sts; propodogastral setae (ppgs) and hysterogastral setae (hgs1) equal, 6 in length; one pair of genital papillae. Genital plates long 15, wide 8; one pair of genital setae (g1); 5 in length; aggenital setae (ag) absent. Three pairs of para-anal setae (pa1pa3), 11, 11 and 6 in length, respectively.

Gnathosoma (Figure 20A–C) — Palp (Figure 20A) 74 long; trochanter without setae; basifemur with only one simple seta; telofemur with one distally branched (3 tines) seta; genu with four simple setae (two ventral and two dorsal); tibiotarsus with one smooth sigmoid seta, one rod-like solenidion and five smooth simple setae. Chelicera (Figure 20B) 77 long; cheliceral seta short, 2 in length. Subcapitulum (Figure 20C) 79 long, 49 wide; four pairs of hypognathal setae (hg), hg1hg4, 20, 8, 5 and 7 in length, respectively. Distances of hg setae: hg1-hg1 7, hg2-hg2 10, hg3-hg3 13, hg4-hg4 32, hg1-hg2 11, hg2-hg3 21, hg3-hg4 13.

Legs (Figure 21A–D) — Resembling the female; all legs with basifemora and telofemora fused; lengths of leg I–IV: 99, 91, 100, 90. Lengths of tarsus I–IV: 33, 30, 28, 28. T absent on tibia IV. Legs I–IV chaetotaxy: coxae I–IV 3-3-3-1 sts; trochanters I–IV 1-1-2-0 sts; basifemora I–IV 2-2-1-0 sts; telofemora I–IV 5-5-4-0 sts. Genu I 3 asl, 5 sts; genu II 1 asl, 5 sts; genu III 1 asl, 5 sts; genu IV 1 asl, 0 sts. Tibia I 1 asl, 1 bsl, 5 sts; tibia II 5 sts; tibia III 1 bsl, 5 sts; tibia IV 0 sts. Tarsus I 2 bsl, 1 fam, 1 dtsl, 1 tsl, 14 sts; tarsus II 1 bsl, 1 dtsl, 15 sts; tarsus III 14 sts; tarsus IV 7 sts.

Larvae — Unknown.

Etymology — The new species name is derived from its collection place Xinning County, Hunan Province, P. R. China.

Remarks — In order to clearly understand the morphological differences among the life stages, chaetotaxy of palp, legs, coxae and genital papillae of protonymph, deutonymph, tritonymph, male and female are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Parabonzia xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov., morphological differences among the life stages protonymph, deutonymph, tritonymph, male and female.

Additional setae on legs, genital plates and subcapitulum were observed in some female paratypes: there is one additional seta close to 1b present on the right coxa I in one female specimen (Figure 4A); one additional genital seta is present on the right side in another female specimen (Figure 4B); one additional seta posterior to hg5 is present on the right side of the subcapitulum in one female specimen, while in another female, hg6 is absent on the left side of the subcapitulum (Figures 6C–D).

The new species is close to P. trioxys (known only from adult female) but differs from it by following characteristics: (1) palp telofemur with one branched (four tines) seta (vs. this seta with three tines in P. trioxys); (2) setal formula of coxal plates I–IV: 6-6-7-7 sts (vs. 7-5-6-7 sts in P. trioxys); (3) eight pairs of genital setae (vs. seven in P. trioxys) (Lin & Zhang, 1998).

The new species also resembles P. mindanensis (known only from adult female) but differs from it by following characteristics: (1) palp telofemur with one branched (four tines) seta (vs. unbranched in P. mindanensis); (2) genua III and IV with one and two asl respectively (vs. genua III and IV without asl in P. mindanensis); (3) tibia III with 1 bsl (vs. 0 bsl on this segment in P. mindanensis) (Corpuz-Raros, 1996).

Type series — Holotype, female was collected from rotten wood, Shunhuangshan National Nature Reserve (N26°14′2.76″, E111°20′2.76″, elevation 992 m), Xinning County, Hunan Province, China, on 27 August, 2017, by Mao-Yuan Yao and Yan Shen, slide No.: HN-CU-201708272601. Paratypes, 20 females, the same data as the holotype, slides No.: HN-CU-201708272601–HN-CU-201708272621; one male, one tritonymph, one deutonymph and one protonymph, the same data as the holotype, slides No.: HN-CU-201708272622–HN-CU-201708272625, respectively. All the slides are deposited in Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, P. R. China (GUGC).

Key to world adult female Parabonzia

Modified from Skvarla et al.(2014)

1. Hysterosomal median shield with 2 pairs of setae
...... P. sibiriensis Khaustov, 2020

— Hysterosomal median shield with 3–4 pairs of setae
...... 2

2. Hysterosomal median shield with 3 pairs of setae
...... 3

— Hysterosomal median shield with 4 pairs of setae
...... 7

3. Large spur-like process present on femora III
...... P. mumai Smiley, 1992

— Large spur-like process absent on femora III
...... 4

4. Coxae II with 5 sts
...... .P. athiasae Den Heyer, 1977

— Coxae II with 7 sts
...... 5

5. Palpal tibiotarsal sigmoid setae lightly barbed
...... P. marthae Den Heyer, 1975

— Palpal tibiotarsal sigmoid setae smooth
...... 6

6. Coxae III with 5 sts
...... P. bdelliformis (Atyeo, 1958)

— Coxae III with 7 sts
...... P. zhangi Lin & Zhang, 2002

7. Palpal telofemoral seta unbranched
...... P. mindanensis Corpuz-Raros, 1996

— Palpal telofemoral seta branched
...... 8

8. Palpal telofemoral seta 4 tines
...... P. xinningensis Chen & Jin sp. nov.

— Palpal telofemoral seta 3 tines
...... P. trioxys Lin & Zhang, 1998

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31872275, 31272357). Thanks to Mao-Yuan Yao and Yan Shen for providing rotten wood samples to the authors.



References

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  9. Skvarla M.-J., Fisher J.R., Dowling A.P.G. 2014. A review of Cunaxidae (Acariformes, Trombidiformes): histories and diagnoses of subfamilies and genera, keys to world species, and some new locality records. ZooKeys, 418: 1-103. doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.418.7629. doi:10.3897/zookeys.418.7629

  10. Smiley R.-L. 1975. A generic revision of the mites of the family Cunaxidae (Acarina). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 68(2): 227-244. doi.org/10.1093/aesa/68.2.227 doi:10.1093/aesa/68.2.227

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Date received:
2020-07-07
Date accepted:
2020-10-23
Date published:
2020-11-04

Edited by:
Kreiter, Serge

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
2020 Chen, Jian-Xin; Guo, Jian-Jun; Yi, Tian-Ci and Jin, Dao-Chao
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