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A new species and new record of Agistemus Summers (Acari: Stigmaeidae) associated with Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum (Solanaceae) from Northeastern of Mexico

Monjarás-Barrera, José Irving1; Liberato Da Silva, Guilherme2; Chacón-Hernández, Julio Cesar3; Santos Da Silva, Onilda4; Juarez Ferla, Noeli5 and Johann, Liana6

1✉ Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Instituto de Ecología Aplicada, División del Golfo 356, Colonia Libertad, C.P. 87019. Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México.
2Laboratório de Acarologia, Tecnovates, Universidade do Vale do Taquari - Univates, Lajeado, 95914-014, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.
3Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Instituto de Ecología Aplicada, División del Golfo 356, Colonia Libertad, C.P. 87019. Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México.
4Departamento de Microbiologia, Imunologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. 90050-170 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.
5Laboratório de Acarologia, Tecnovates, Universidade do Vale do Taquari - Univates, Lajeado, 95914-014, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil & CNPq Researcher.
6Laboratório de Acarologia, Tecnovates, Universidade do Vale do Taquari - Univates, Lajeado, 95914-014, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

2020 - Volume: 60 Issue: 2 pages: 470-480

DOI: 10.24349/acarologia/20204378
ZooBank LSID: 922C0CDD-E7B9-4670-8AE3-863621A79BAB

Original research

Keywords

Raphignathoidea Protected Naturals Areas Trombidiformes chile piquín Tamaulipas

Abstract

Two mite species belonging to the genus Agistemus Summers (Acari: Stigmaeidae) were collected from wild plants known as “chile piquín” (Capsicum anuumm L. var. glabriusculum) in two protected naturals areas, state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Agistemus piquinnus Monjarás-Barrera & Johann n. sp. is described and illustrated. Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira, 2002 is a new record for Mexico. A key to the Agistemus species of Mexico is provided.


Introduction

In several ecosystems and crops, mites of the family Stigmaeidae are one of the most important predatory mites after Phytoseiidae (Santos & Laing, 1985) and are considered economically important as predators of other mites and small arthropods (Fan & Zhang, 2005; Fan & Flechtmann, 2015). Stigmaeid mites have been studied as potential predators against pestiferous mites of the families Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae, Tenuipalpidae and Tarsonemidae (Gerson et al., 2003; Johann et al., 2013). Therefore, its correct identification is fundamental for management programs of these mites (Zhang, 2003).

The genus Agistemus Summers, 1960 comprise more than 87 described species (Fan et al., 2016; Paktinat-Saeij et al., 2017; Rehman et al., 2018); of which, seven were recorded from Mexico: Agistemus floridanus González-Rodríguez (González-Rodríguez, 1965), A. longisetus González-Rodríguez (González-Rodríguez, 1963), A. fleschneri Summers, A. simplex González-Rodríguez, A. striolatus González-Rodríguez (González-Rodríguez, 1965), A. arcypaurus González-Rodríguez and A. terminalis Quayle (Estrada-Venegas et al., 2002).

The present study aims to (i) described a new species of stigmaeid mites from Mexico, (ii) record of Agistemus brasiliensis for the first time from this country, and (iii) provide an identification key to species of Agistemus so far reported from Mexico.

Materials and methods

The specimens were collected on leaves of the wild plant ''chile piquín'' (Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum) in two Protected Naturals Areas (PNA): ''El Cielo'' Biosphere Reserve (23°01'07' N, 99°08'54'' W) and PNA ''Altas Cumbres'' (23°41'52'' N, 99°11'04'' W and 23°46'41'' N, 99°12'12'' W), located in the municipalities of Gómez Farias and Victoria in Tamaulipas, Mexico, respectively. The collected leaves were transported to the laboratory of Ecología de Poblaciones in the Instituto de Ecología Aplicada of Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas. Mite extraction followed Dhooria (2016) and slide preparations were carried out according to Jeppson et al., (1975). The mites were observed under Phase Contrast (PH) and Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) microscope Zeiss AXIO Imager.Z2 in the Laboratory of Acarology of Universidade do Vale do Taquari - Univates, Lajeado, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

The terminology and abbreviations are based on Grandjean (1944) and Kethley (1990). All measurements are given in micrometers (µm) and the measurements of the holotype are followed by ranges of the paratypes in parentheses.

Holotype female and three paratype males were deposited at Departamento de Entomologia e Acarologia, Escola Superior de Agricultura ''Luiz de Queiroz'', Universidade de São Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Two paratypes female were deposited at ''Colección Nacional de Ácaros'' (CNAC) of Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) in Mexico city, Mexico.

Taxonomy

Family: Stigmaeidae Oudemans, 1931

Genus: Agistemus Summers, 1960

Type species: Caligonus terminalis Quayle, 1912, by original designation. Agistemus terminalis (Quayle), Summers, 1960: 234.

Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira, 2002

(Table 1)

Table 1. Measurements of Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira, 2002 collected in Mexico.

DistributionAgistemus brasiliensis was reported on Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck in São Paulo, Brazil, feeding on Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Tetranychidae) and Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Tenuipalpidae) (Matioli et al., 2002). It is recorded from Coffea arabica L. and C. canephora P. (Mineiro et al., 2010). It is the only species collected on Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay and Merlot cultivar, Vitis labrusca L. Bordeaux cultivar and Solanum americanum Mill. (Johann et al., 2013). Agistemus brasiliensis has only been recorded from two countries worldwide, Brazil (Fan et al., 2019) and Mexico (present study).

Remarks — No morphological differences were observed between specimens from Mexico and those described by Matioli et al., (2002). Measurements of the Mexican specimens are provided in Table 1.

Material examined — All specimens were found on leaves of Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum at, Ojo de Agua, Gomez Farias Tamaulipas, Mexico; J. I. Monjarás B. leg.; two females; February 17, 2017; one female, March 3, 2017; one male, February 17, 2017; one male, October 13, 2017; one male, November 10, 2017.

Agistemus piquinnus Monjarás-Barrera & Johann n. sp.

ZOOBANK: AC9EF2C2-8565-4982-9AEB-F1DBE9BA2D88

(Figures 1-5)

Diagnosis (female) — Prodorsal and hysterosomal shields smooth; length of seta c1 longer than the distance between the bases of c1 and d1 ; the ratio vi/vi–vi 2.8 (2.8-3.0); ratio c1/c1–c1 2.1 (2.1-2.3); ratio: pob/eye: 3.2 (3.0-3.2). Aggenital shield not defined, bearing two pair of setae (ag1 -ag2 ); seta g1 extending beyond the base of ps2 ; setae ps1 and ps2 slightly barbed and more robust than ps3 ; femora I–IV 5-4-2-2.

Description

Female

(n=3)

Dorsum (Figures 1A-B) — Length of idiosoma 323 (323-365); width of idiosoma 264 (264-295). Idiosoma broadly oval in dorso-ventral view. Prodorsal shield triangular, indented posteriorly and smooth. Prodorsal shield with 3 pairs of setae (vi, ve and sci), one pair of eyes 9 (9-10) in diameter and one pair of post-ocular bodies (pob) 29 (29-30) in diameter; humeral shields smooth, bearing c2 . Hysterosomal shield smooth, with five pairs of setae (c1 , d1 , d2 , e1 and e2 ); intercalary shields smooth, with setae f1 ; suranal shield entire and smooth, with two pairs of setae, h1 and h2 . Dorsal setae set on small tubercles, barbed, with blunt tips, h1 and h2 are distinctly shorter. Length of dorsal setae: vi 58 (58-60); ve 82 (82-85); sci 79 (73-79); c1 73 (73-75); c2 46 (45-50); d1 72 (70-75); d2 67 (67-73); e1 73 (73-80); e2 76 (76-80); f1 60 (60-63); h1 38 (38-40) and h2 25 (25-28). Distances between dorsal setae: vi–vi 21 (20-21); ve–ve 56 (50-56); vi–ve 19 (18-23); ve–sci 47 (43-47); sci–sci 114 (114-118); c1–c1 35 (33-35); c1–d1 51 (51-55); c1–c2 83 (83-98); c1–d2 59 (59-63); d1–d1 74 (68-75); d1–d2 29 (25-29); d1–e1 59 (50-59); d1–e2 37 (35-40); d2–d2 133 (130-135); d2–e2 42 (42-48); e1–e1 30 (25-30); e2–e2 108 (108-115); e1–f1 30 (30-58); f1–f1 67 (63-75); f1–h1 38 (38-48); h1–h1 13 (10-13); h1–h2 21 (15-21); h2–h2 49 (25-49). Ratios: pob/eye: 3.2 (3.0-3.2); vi/vi–vi 2.8 (2.8-3.0); c1/c1–c1 2.1 (2.1-2.3); d1/d1–d1 1.0 (1.0); e1/e1–e1 2.4 (2.4-3.2); f1/f1–f1 0.9 (0.8-1.0); h1/h1–h1 2.9 (2.9-4.0); c1–c1/ d1–d1 0.5 (0.4-0.5); c1–c1/e1–e1 1.2 (1.2); d1–d1/e1–e1 2.5 (2.5-2.7); h1/h2 1.5 (1.4-1.5); c1–c1 : d1–d1 : e1–e1 : f1–f1 = 1.2 (1.2): 2.5 (2.5-2.7): 1.0: 2.2 (2.2-2.7).

Figure 1. Agistemus piquinnus n. sp. (female); A – Dorsum, B – Dorsum (PH), C – Anogenital area, D – Anogenital area (DIC).

Venter (Figures 1C-D) — Ventral surface ornamented with striations; bearing three pairs of setae (1a, 3a and 4a). Aggenital shield not defined, bearing two pairs of setae (ag1 and ag2 ). Anogenital valves with one pair of genital (g1 ) setae and three pairs of pseudanal setae (ps1–ps3 ). Seta g1 reaching to base of seta ps2 . Setae ps1 and ps2 slightly barbed and more robust than ps3 . Measurements of setae: 1a 31 (25-31); 3a 28 (23-28); 4a 23 (20-23); ag1 16 (13-16); ag2 15 (13-15); g1 26 (20-26); ps1 14 (13-14); ps2 16 (15-16); ps3 13 (13-15); g1-ps3 29 (28-29).

Gnathosoma (Figure 2A) — Gnathosoma (including palp) 143 (143-150); subcapitulum 84 (80-84); palp 101 (100-103); chelicera 99 (93-105). Subcapitulum bearing subcapitular setae m 32 (30-33) and n 48 (48) and adoral setae or1 18 (18-19) and or2 19 (18-23). Distance m–m 44 (43-45), n–n 36 (30-36) and m–n 7 (7-8). Palp five segmented; palptrochanter without setae; palpfemur with two smooth and one barbed setae; palpgenu with one seta; palptibia with two tactile setae + one well-developed claw + one spine-like accessory claw; palptarsus with four tactile setae + one solenidion (ω), one subapical eupathidium and one distal trifurcate eupathidium.

Figure 2. Agistemus piquinnus n. sp. Gnathosoma; A – Female, B – Male.

Legs (Figures 3A-D) — Length of legs I–IV: 297 (297-325); 264 (264-293); 253 (250-275); 277 (275-290). Femur I 77 (77-85), genu I 27 (27-28), tibia I 55 (55-57), tarsus I 75 (70-83). Dorsal most seta on femur I (dFI) barbed 41 (41-45), longer than h1 , 1.1 (1.1-1.2) times length of h1 ; dorsal most seta on genu I (dGI) barbed 36 (35-38). Chaetotaxy: coxae (excluding 1a, 3a and 4a) 2(+1elcl)-1-2-2, trochanters 1-1-1-1, femora 5-4-2-2, genua 3(+1κ)-1-0-0, tibiae 5(+1φp)-5(+1φp)-5(+1φp)-5(+1φp), tarsi 12(+1ω)-9(+1ω)-7(+1ω)-7. Length of solenidia: ωI 27 (25-27); ωII 26 (23-26); ωIII 16 (15-18).

Figure 3. Agistemus piquinnus n. sp. (female); A – Leg I, B Leg II, C – Leg III, D – Leg IV.

Male

(n=3)

Dorsum (Figures 4A-B) — Length of idiosoma 266 (220-266); width of idiosoma 200 (177-200); idiosoma broadly oval in dorso-ventral view. Prodorsal shield triangular, indented posteriorly and smooth. Prodorsal shield with 3 pairs of setae (vi, ve and sci), one pair of eyes 8 (8-10) in diameter and one pair of post-ocular bodies (pob) 23 (22-23) in diameter; humeral shields smooth, bearing c2 . Hysterosomal shield smooth, with six pairs of setae (c1 , d1 , d2 , e1 , e2 , and f1 ); suranal shield entire and smooth, with two pairs of setae, h1 and h2 . Dorsal setae set on small tubercles, short and barbed, with blunt tips, e1 , h1 and h2 are distinctly shorter. Length of dorsal setae: vi 45 (45-54); ve 67 (67-68); sci 63 (60-65); c1 61 (57-61); c2 37 (37-40); d1 50 (47-52); d2 57 (48-59); e1 21 (21-28); e2 60 (56-60); f1 56 (54-61); h1 13 (13-15) and h2 19 (18-20). Distances between dorsal setae: vi–vi 20 (17-20); ve–ve 51 (46-51); vi–ve 18 (18-20); ve–sci 41 (36-41); sci–sci 102 (92-102); c1–c1 28 (28-35); c1–d1 44 (41-44); c1–c2 78 (63-78); c1–d2 51 (46-51); d1–d1 63 (60-63); d1–d2 21 (19-21); d1–e1 41 (39-41); d1–e2 26 (24-28); d2–d2 107 (91-107); d2–e2 31 (29-31); e1–e1 23 (23); e2–e2 87 (81-90); e1–f1 15 (14-16); f1–f1 30 (30-33); f1–h1 42 (24-42); h1–h1 7 (5-7); h1–h2 11 (10-11); h2–h2 34 (28-34). Ratios: pob/eye: 2.9 (2.2-2.9); vi/vi–vi 2.3 (2.3-3.2); c1/c1–c1 1.4 (1.4); d1/d1–d1 0.8 (0.8-0.9); e1/e1–e1 0.9 (0.9-1.2); f1/f1–f1 1.9 (1.6-2.0); h1/h1–h1 1.9 (1.9-3.0); c1–c1/ d1–d1 0.4 (0.4-0.6); c1–c1/e1–e1 1.2 (1.2-1.5); d1–d1/e1–e1 2.7 (2.6-2.7); h1/h2 0.7 (0.7-0.8); c1–c1 : d1–d1 : e1–e1 : f1–f1 = 1.2 (1.2-1.5): 2.7 (2.6-2.7): 1.0: 1.3 (1.3-1.4)

Figure 4. Agistemus piquinnus n. sp. (male); A – Dorsum, B – Dorsum (PH), C – Anogenital area, D – Anogenital area (DIC).

Venter (Figures 4C-D) — Ventral surface ornamented with striations; bearing three pairs of setae (1a, 3a and 4a). Aggenital shield defined, with one pair of setae (g1 ). Anogenital valves with three pairs of pseudanal setae (ps1–3 ), ps1 smaller than ps2 and ps3 . Measurements of setae: 1a 29 (28-31); 3a 22 (22-34); 4a 24 (24-25); ag1 14 (14-15); ps1 5 (5-10); ps2 12 (11-12); ps3 11 (11-12).

Gnathosoma (Figure 2B) — Gnathosoma (including palp) 127 (127-143); subcapitulum 79 (77-85); palp 93 (93-96); chelicera 95 (84-95). Subcapitulum bearing subcapitular setae m 20 (20-37) and n 42 (42-48) and adoral setae or1 18 (16-23) and or2 21 (20-21). Distance m–m 42 (35-42), n–n 31 (25-34) and m–n 8 (6-8). Palp five segmented; palptrochanter without setae; palpfemur with two barbed and one smooth seta; palpgenu with one seta; palptibia with two tactile setae + one well-developed claw + one spine-like accessory claw; palptarsus with four tactile setae + one solenidion (ω), one subapical eupathidium and one distal trifid eupathidium.

Legs (Figures 5A-D) — Length of legs I–IV: 288 (288-300); 240 (239-246); 219 (219-236); 247 (243-258). Femur I 76 (75-77), genu I 22 (22-24), tibia I 49 (49-51), tarsus I 69 (69-74). Dorsal most seta on femur I (dFI) barbed 49 (49-53), longer than h1 , 3.8 (3.5-4.1) times length of h1 ; dorsal most seta on genu I (dGI) barbed 36 (36-39). Chaetotaxy: coxae (excluding 1a, 3a and 4a) 2(+1elcl)-1-2-2, trochanters 1-1-1-1, femora 5-4-2-2, genua 3(+1κ)-1-0-0, tibiae 5(+1φp)-5(+1φp)-5(+1φp)-5(+1φp), tarsi 12(+2ω)-9(+2ω)-7(+1ω)-7(+1ω). Length of solenidia: Tarsus I ωI 37 (34-37), ωII 26 (25-26); Tarsus II ωI 36 (32-36), ωII 32 (27-32); Tarsus III ωI 15 (15); Tarsus IV ωI 19 (19-20).

Figure 5. Agistemus piquinnus n. sp. (male); A – Leg I, B – Leg II, C – Leg III, D – Leg IV.

Immature stages — unknown

Remarks — The new species resembles Agistemus longisetus González-Rodríguez, 1963 and A. brasiliensis Matioli et al., 2002; but Agistemus piquinnus n. sp. can be distinguished from A. longisetus by a) lengths of median hysterosomal setae c1 (73), d1 (72) and e1 (73) are shorter (vs 104, 103 and 115, respectively); b) ventral setae 1a (29), 3a (22) and 4a (24) are shorter (vs 41, 39 and 39, respectively) c) the ratio pob/eye (3.2), sci/pob (2.7), vi/vi-vi (2.8), c1/c1-c1 \down (2.1) and e1/e1-e1 (2.4) are different (vs 4.1, 2.2, 2.6, 2.8 and 2.8, respectively); d) aggenital shield not horseshoe-shape and g1 (26) twice longer than ps3 (13) [vs aggenital shield in horseshoe-shape and g1 (23) slightly longer than ps3 (20)]. Agistemus piquinnus n. sp. can be distinguished from A. brasiliensis by a) setae vi (58), ve (82) and sci (79) are longer (vs 47, 77 and 72, respectively); b) ratio pob/eye (3.2), vi/vi-vi (2.8), c1/c1-c1 (2.1), d1/d1-d1 (1.0), e1/e1-e1 (2.4) are greater (vs 2.0, 2.5, 1.7, 0.8 and 1.9, respectively), h1/h1-h1 (2.9) and h1 /h2 (1.5) are less (vs 5.6 and 1.9, respectively); c) aggenital shield not horseshoe-shape and seta g1 extending beyond the base of ps2 (vs aggenital shield in horseshoe-shape and setae g1 reach just past ps3 ).

Etymology —The new species is named after the regional name of host plant ''piquín''.

Type material —Holotype, 2 females paratypes and 3 paratypes males were collected on leaves of Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum (Solanaceae), Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Holotype, female on leaf of Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum (Solanaceae), Cañón de la Peregrina, Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas. November 12, 2017. J. I. Monjarás B. leg.; two females collected on leaves of Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum (Solanaceae). Cañón de la Peregrina, Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas. July 10, 2019. J. I. Monjarás B. One male collected on leaf of Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum (Solanaceae), Cañón de la Peregrina, Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas. April 28, 2017. J. I. Monjarás B. leg. Two males collected on leaves of Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum (Solanaceae). Cañón de la Peregrina, Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas. November 12, 2017. J. I. Monjarás B. leg.

Key to females of Agistemus from Mexico

(modified from Paktinat-Saeij et al., 2016)

1. One pair of aggenital setae (species group fleschneri)
...... 2

— Two pairs of aggenital setae (species group terminalis)
...... 3

2. Dorsal shield reticulated; ratios vi/vi-vi 2.6, c1/c1-c1 1.0, e1/e1-e1 1.8
...... A. fleschneri Summers

— Dorsal shield smooth; ratios vi/vi-vi 2.0, c1/c1-c1 1.0, e1/e1-e1 1.2
...... A. striolatus González-Rodríguez

3. Dorsal shield ornamented with small alveoli; ratios vi/vi-vi 2.6, e1/e1-e1 2.2
...... A. arcypaurus González-Rodríguez

— Dorsal shield smooth
...... 4

4. Setae c1 shorter than distance between the bases of c1-d1
...... 5

— Setae c1 equal or longer than distance between the bases of c1-d1
...... 7

5. Setae g1 reach to the base of setae ps3 ;\down ratios vi/vi-vi 2.4, c1/c1-c1 0.6
...... A. simplex González-Rodríguez

— Setae g1 reach to the base of setae ps2
...... 6

6. Ratios vi/vi-vi 1.0, c1/c1-c1 0.6
...... A. terminalis (Quayle)

— Ratio vi/vi-vi 1.5-1.7, c1/c1-c1 1.5–1.6
...... A. floridanus González-Rodríguez

7. Length of medial hysterosomal setae < 100µm
...... A. longisetus González-Rodríguez

— Length of medial hysterosomal setae < 100µm
...... 8

8. Ratios pob/eye 3.1, d1/d1-d1 1.0, h1 /h2 1.4
...... A. piquinnus n. sp.

— Ratios pob/eye 2.0, d1/d1-d1 0.8, h1 /h2 1.9
...... A. brasiliensis Matioli et al.

Acknowledgements

We thank the Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas for supporting this research through project PFI2016-EB-07, PRODEP and CONACYT for the economic support to the doctoral stay. The authors are grateful to Universidade do Vale do Taquari - Univates for providing necessary materials during the study.

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Date received:
2020-02-11
Date accepted:
2020-05-12
Date published:
2020-05-22

Edited by:
Faraji, Farid

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
2020 Monjarás-Barrera, José Irving; Liberato Da Silva, Guilherme; Chacón-Hernández, Julio Cesar; Santos Da Silva, Onilda; Juarez Ferla, Noeli and Johann, Liana

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