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A predator-prey system: Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae): worldwide occurrence datasets

Migeon, Alain1; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane2; Navajas, Maria3; Litskas, Vassilis D.4 and Stavrinides, Menelaos C.5

1✉ CBGP, INRA, CIRAD, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro, Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
2CBGP, INRA, CIRAD, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro, Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
3CBGP, INRA, CIRAD, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro, Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
4Cyprus University of Technology, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Arch. Kyprianos 30, Limassol, 3036, Cyprus.
5Cyprus University of Technology, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Arch. Kyprianos 30, Limassol, 3036, Cyprus.

2019 - Volume: 59 Issue: 3 pages: 301-307

DOI: 10.24349/acarologia/20194322

Data paper

Keywords

literature records collection records distribution host-plant modelling

Abstract

The predator-prey system Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) represents the most studied and the most known system among the Acari. Because of the agronomical importance of the two mite species, a wealth of modelling studies investigated the interactions of the two species at the individual level. However, regional or global level works on this system are lacking, which is impeding the investigation of climate change effects on biological control effectiveness. Here we compile and geo-locate worldwide occurrences for the two species considered, based on literature, collection and field survey data. The datasets presented in this document gather most of the literature records of both species for which locality data were available for geo-referencing (1,037 for T. urticae and 126 for P. persimilis). Geo-located data from collections and field surveys including host-plants are also presented for the first time (322 for T. urticae and 65 for P. persimilis). Phytoseiulus persimilis is also reported for the first time from Kenya and La Martinique.


Introduction

The development of effective biocontrol strategies relies on an in-depth understanding of predator-prey relationships (McMurtry and Croft, 1997). However, while many modelling studies focus at fine scale interactions (Takabayashi et al., 2000; Ellner et al., 2001), few studies address interactions at coarser levels. Furthermore, the investigation of climate change effects on biological control requires studies that expand beyond the local to the regional and global level. Such studies depend however, on the availability of detailed geo-located data on the distribution of both prey and predators.

Among the Acari, due to their economic importance, Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, 1957 (Acari: Phytoseiidae) are the most studied, the most well-known and the most widely distributed prey-predator pair globally. For both species, databases recording host plants (for phytophagous mites) or plant support (for predatory mites) and country level distribution are available (Demite et al., 2018; Migeon and Dorkeld, 2018) but geo-located occurrences are not included in these databases and remain scarce. This lack of information combined with a country scale mapping leads to an over-representation on a global scale as exemplified figures 1 and 2. Furthermore, some reports are made from glasshouses in countries with too harsh winters and unsuitable for outdoor surviving and have no ecological significance.

Tetranychus urticae is the species that attracts the most interest and has generated the greatest number of works among the family Tetranychidae (Vacante, 2015); the Google Scholar query ``Tetranychus urticae'' returns 50,600 records (Google Scholar October 2018). It has been recorded from 1,140 host plants in 124 countries (Migeon and Dorkeld, 2018). The annual value of pesticides used against the pest represents 400 million dollars (Van Leeuwen et al., 2015).

Meanwhile P. persimilis is the species that attracts the most interest and has generated the greatest number of works among predatory mites; the Google Scholar query ``Phytoseiulus persimilis'' returns 10,200 records (Google Scholar October 2018). It has been recorded in 36 countries from all the continents (Demite et al., 2018), but mainly around the Mediterranean Basin especially before its large introduction all over the world for biological control purposes (Kanouh et al., 2010). This predatory mite is mass-produced by biological control companies throughout the world. Phytoseiulus persimilis feeds mainly on T. urticae and belongs to the specialist class of Phytoseiidae predators, as it is closely associated with its ``unique'' prey T. urticae (McMurtry & Croft, 1997; McMurtry et al., 2015).

Few datasets regarding Phytoseiidae or Tetranychidae have been published. GBIF (2018) gathered 10,572 occurrences of Phytoseiidae, of which only 69% are geo-located. In the GBIF (Global Biological Information Facility, https://www.gbif.org ) dataset we found 121 P. persimilis records but only 74 with suitable coordinates (match of location and coordinates and 0.1 or more degree precision) and 65 unique locations. Regarding the Tetranychidae, two datasets exist. The first one deals with the genus Mononychellus (Vásquez-Ordóñez and Parsa 2014); the second deals with the whole family (Migeon 2015) and provides 271 T. urticae records but only 248 with suitable coordinates and 69 unique locations. To fill the gap in the availability of detailed geo-located data for both species, we publish four datasets. Two are issued from literature records and contain the occurrences retrieved for the two mite species considered. The two others contain new unpublished data from our collections and surveys and report occurrences and host plants or plant support for the two species.

Data published through GBIF

The datasets have been deposited in GBIF and are available under the following references:

Phytoseiulus persimilis literature occurrences

https://www.gbif.org/dataset/6a5bca76-9c9b-4962-acda-c02ddc2292dc

Phytoseiulus persimilis collection records

https://www.gbif.org/dataset/4367882e-714d-4268-a657-5dd7680eff15

Tetranychus urticae literature occurrences

https://www.gbif.org/dataset/a9c0892e-0991-4c73-826d-8629cd71d95a

Tetranychus urticae collection records

https://www.gbif.org/dataset/f7bec8f5-55a8-4dde-9b2e-571fef74bb23

Usage rights

All the datasets are publicly available and copyrighted under the Open Data Commons Attribution License (ODC-By).

Project details

Project title

A predator-prey system: Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae): worldwide occurrence datasets.

Personnel

Alain Migeon (data manager, data collector, data publisher), Vassilis D. Litskas (data collector), Maria Navajas (supervisor), Menelaos C. Stavrinides (supervisor), Marie-Stéphane Tixier (data manager, data collector).

Funding

The work was carried out as part of the FACCE ERA-NET Plus - FACCE JPI GENOMITE project, with funding from national and EC sources (EC contract 618105). The authors acknowledge funding from the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation of Cyprus (Grant: KOINA/ΠΚΠ/FACE/1013/10 to V.L. and M.S.). This project was partially supported by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Grant ANR-14-JFAC-0006-01 to M.N., A.M. and MS.T.), the scientific conceal of Montpellier SupAgro (MS.T.) and the metaprogramme Adaptation of Agriculture and Forest to Climate Change (A.M. and M.N.) launched by the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA).

Design description

The dataset was developed to increase the knowledge of a predator-prey system at the world scale. It represents the first basic steps necessary to model species distributions and prey-predator interactions at a large scale.

The collections are deposited at CBGP (CBGP, Campus International de Baillarguet, 755 Avenue du Campus Agropolis, CS30016, 34988 MONTFERRIER-sur-LEZ Cedex, France) in INRA (Tetranychus urticae) and Montpellier SupAgro (Phytoseiulus persimilis) collections.

The literature records were retrieved by Alain Migeon (Tetranychus urticae) and Marie-Stéphane Tixier (Phytoseiulus persimilis) by geo-referencing localities indicated in the publications.

Taxonomic coverage

Kingdom: Animalia.

Phylum: Arthropoda.

Class: Arachnida.

Order: Parasitiformes.

Family: Phytoseiidae.

Genus: Phytoseiulus

Species: persimilis Athias-Henriot, 1957

Order: Trombidiformes.

Family: Tetranychidae.

Genus: Tetranychus

Species: urticae (Koch, 1836)

Temporal coverage

The temporal coverage ranges from the second half of the twentieth century to now for both species.

Geographic coverage

Figure 1. Tetranychus urticae. World map representing all the locations included in the dataset. Global literature survey (yellow dots), collections and fields surveys (blue dots). Brown countries indicate literature country records (Migeon and Dorkeld, 2018). Migeon (2015) data (green dots) are also added.

Figure 2. Phytoseiulus persimilis. World map representing all locations included in the dataset. Global literature survey (yellow dots), collections and fields surveys (blue dots). Brown countries indicate literature country records (Demite et al., 2018). GBIF (GBIF, 2018) (green dots) are also added.

The spatial coverage differs among the two species.

The known distribution of T. urticae is shown in the figure 1 along with the geo-located records. Among the 411 references on T. urticae distribution in the Spider Mites Web database (Migeon and Dorkeld, 2018) representing 124 countries, we were able to find 246 references with localities (see Supplementary materials). These references correspond to 96 countries. For 29 countries, the information was not accurate enough to be included in the dataset (Table 1).

Table 1. Countries for which Tetranychus urticae occurrence was not accurate enough to determine the corresponding geographical coordinates and then including them in the dataset.

The known distribution of P. persimilis is reported on figure 2 along with the geo-located records. Among the 86 references dealing with the P. persimilis distribution in the Phytoseiidae Database (Demite et al. 2018) representing 36 countries, we were able to find 54 references with localities (see Supplementary materials). These references correspond to 29 countries. For 17 countries, the information was not accurate enough to be included in the dataset (Table 2). Kenya and Martinique are new records. For two countries (Finland and Hungary), only indoors records were reported and not included in the dataset.

Table 2. Countries for which Phytoseiulus persimilis occurrence was not accurate enough to determine the corresponding geographical coordinates and then including them in the dataset.

Methods

Method step description

The datasets pool two different data types. (i) All available literature for the two species was analysed. Geographical data (coordinates) were compiled when available. When only textual descriptions of locations were available, occurrence data were assigned using several geolocation tools like GoogleMaps, GeoNames and other gazetteers, completed when necessary by textual search. Each record contains an indication of uncertainty. (ii) Unpublished data from INRA-CBGP collection, SupAgro collection and Cyprus University of Technology, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science (CUT-ABF) survey were added for the two species. These latter records are also completed by host (or support) plant when available. To avoid confusions and provide solely ``natural records'', only records not reported, according to the literature, from glasshouses or indoors supports were used.

The coordinates are in decimal degrees (DD) based on the WGS84 geodetic system. Geographic coordinates were visually verified using the Check Coordinates tool in Diva-GIS (Hijmans et al., 2012) and manual verification (e.g. points in the sea).

Host plant nomenclature is in accordance to current taxonomy reference (The Plant List, 2013).

A total of 1,037 T. urticae occurrences were retrieved from literature; 941 of them are unique location records. Unpublished data from INRA-CBGP collection gather 178 occurrences / host plant records. Unpublished data from CUT-ABF gather 144 occurrences / host plant records. Altogether unpublished data represent 212 unique location records.

A total of 126 P. persimilis occurrences were retrieved from literature; 103 of them are unique location records. Unpublished data from Montpellier SupAgro-CBGP collection gather 65 occurrences / support plant records. These unpublished data represent 35 unique location records.

Uncertainty issues

Collection and survey records — Location precision was set to 0.001° DD for collection and surveys where recent locations had coordinates records

Literature records — Location precision has been set to 0.001° DD when coordinates or precise locality was indicated in the publication to 0.01 DD when the place was found to correspond to a bigger area (10 to 50 km²). Less precise locations were not recorded.

Dataset

Object name — Darwin Core Archive Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae): worldwide occurrences records.

Character encoding — UTF-8.

Format name — Darwin Core Archive Format.

Format version — 1.0.

Distribution

Phytoseiulus persimilis literature occurrences

https://www.gbif.org/dataset/6a5bca76-9c9b-4962-acda-c02ddc2292dc

Phytoseiulus persimilis collection records

https://www.gbif.org/dataset/4367882e-714d-4268-a657-5dd7680eff15

Tetranychus urticae literature occurrences

https://www.gbif.org/dataset/a9c0892e-0991-4c73-826d-8629cd71d95a

Tetranychus urticae collection records

https://www.gbif.org/dataset/f7bec8f5-55a8-4dde-9b2e-571fef74bb23

Publication date of data — 2019-08-07

Language — English.

License of use — Open Data Commons Attribution License (ODC-By).

References

Demite P.R., Moraes G.J. de, McMurtry J.A., Denmark H.A., Castilho, R. C. 2018. Phytoseiidae Database. Available from: https://www.lea.esalq.usp.br/phytoseiidae (accessed 18/10/2018).

Ellner S.P., McCauley E., Kendall B.E. et al. 2001. Habitat structure and population persistence in an experimental community. Nature, 412, 538–543. doi:10.1038/35087580

GBIF (2018) GBIF.org (18 October 2018) GBIF Occurrence Download doi:10.15468/dl.nxlrti.

Hijmans R.J., Guarino L., Mathur P. 2012. DIVA-GIS. Version 7.5. A geographic information system for the analysis of species distribution data. Available at: http://www. diva-gis .

Kanouh M., Tixier M.-S., Okassa M., Kreiter S. 2010. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of the genus Phytoseiulus (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Zoologica Scripta 39, 450-461. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2010.00439.x

McMurtry J. A., Sourassou N. F., Demite P. 2015. The Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) as biological control agents. In: Carrillo D., de Moraes G., Pe-a J. (eds) Prospects for biological control of plant feeding mites and other harmful organisms. Progress in Biological Control, vol 19. Springer, Cham, pp 133-149. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-15042-0\_5

McMurtry J. A., Croft, B. A. 1997. Life-styles of phytoseiid mites and their roles in biological control. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42, 291-321 doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.42.1.291

Migeon A. 2015. The Jean Gutierrez spider mite collection. Zookeys 489: 15-24. doi:10.3897/zookeys.489.9292

Migeon A., Dorkeld F. 2018. Spider Mites Web: A comprehensive database for the Tetranychidae Available from: http://www1.montpellier.inra.fr/CBGP/spmweb/ (accessed 18/10/2018).

Takabayashi J., Arimura G., Ozawa R., Shimoda T., Nishioka T., Boland W. 2000. Herbivory-induced volatiles elicit defence genes in lima bean leaves. Nature, 406, 512–515. doi:10.1038/35020072

The Plant List 2013. Version 1.1. http://www.theplantlist.org [accessed 15/10/2018].

Vacante V. 2016. The handbook of mites of economic plants identification, bio-ecology and control. CABI, Wallingford, UK & Boston, MA, USA. 872 pp.

Van Leeuwen T, Tirry L, Yamamoto A, Nauen R, Dermauw W. 2015. The economic importance of acaricides in the control of phytophagous mites and an update on recent acaricide mode of action research. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 121: 12-21. doi:10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.12.009

Vásquez-Ordó-ez A.A., Parsa S. 2014 A geographic distribution database of Mononychellus mites (Acari, Tetranychidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta). Zookeys, 407: 1-8. doi:10.3897/zookeys.407.7564



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Article editorial history

Date received:
2019-02-01
Date accepted:
2019-04-03
Date published:
2019-08-09

Edited by:
Faraji, Farid

(CC BY 4.0)
© 2019 Migeon, Alain; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane; Navajas, Maria; Litskas, Vassilis D. and Stavrinides, Menelaos C.

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