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Immature stages and male of Paraseiulus amacroporus Faraji et al., (Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) from Southwestern Iran

Asali Fayaz, Bahman1; Khanjani, Mohammad2; Bakhshi, Samira3 and Ueckermann, Edward A.4

1✉ Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
2Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
3Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
4Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa.

2017 - Volume: 57 Issue: 4 pages: 869-876

DOI: 10.24349/acarologia/20174201
ZooBank LSID: EB9AE57E-2FB9-4BDB-8BF9-44D664550B93

Keywords

mite, Typhlodrominae, Paraseiulini, predator, pistachio

Abstract

This study presents the morphological characteristics of immature and adult male stages of Paraseiulus amacroporus Faraji, Jalaeian and McMurtry, 2008 (Phytoseiidae) collected from pistachio trees, Pistacia atlantica Desf. (Anacardiaceae), Shiraz vicinity (Fars province), South west Iran. The genders of the deutonymphal stage can be determined by the number of paired setae in the opisthogaster (six in female vs. four in male).

Introduction

The Paraseiulini (subfamily Typhlodrominae) consisted of three genera (Paraseiulus Muma, Australiseiulus Muma and Kuzinellus Wainstein). The genus Paraseiulus is distinguished by absence of opisthogastric setae JV2 and ventrianal shield sole-shaped with two pairs of preanal setae and without pores (Chant and McMurtry, 1994). To date 15 valid species (plus seven junior synonymy species) have been describes and recorded from Eurasia, Africa and America continents (according to Demite et al. 2017) and ranks second in the tribe. According to McMurtry et al. (2013), representatives of Paraseiulus are categorized as specialized predators of tydeoids (Tydeoidea) (Subtype I-c, lifestyle). Paraseiulus amacroporus Faraji, Jalaeian and McMurtry, 2008 was described and collected from pistachio trees, Borkhar (Isfahan Province), Iran. In this paper the immature and adult stages [protonymph, deutonymph (♀ & ♂) and male] are described and illustrated.

Materials and methods

The specimens were collected from leaves of pistachio trees, Pistacia atlantica Desf. (Anacardiaceae), Shiraz region, (Fars province), Southwestern Iran, under a stereomicroscope (Wild M3®). The mites were mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer’s medium for examination under an Olympus BX51 phase and differential interference contrast microscope. Illustrations were done with the aid of a camera Lucida apparatus attached to the microscope and measurements were done with a graded ocular. Measurements are given in micrometers. Leg lengths do not include pretarsus. The classification system used follows that of Chant & McMurtry (2007). The setal notations used follow Lindquist and Evans (1965) as adapted by Rowell et al. (1978) and also Rowell & Chant (1979) to phytoseiid mites; dorsal and ventral setal patterns are according to Chant and Yoshida-Shaul (1989 and 1991); organotaxy follows Athias-Henriot (1975).

Results
Phytoseiidae Berlese, 1916: 33.

Typhlodrominae Wainstein, 1962: 131;Chant and McMurtry, 1994: 235.

Paraseiulini Wainstein, 1976: 697-698.

Paraseiulus Muma, 1961: 299.

Paraseiulus amacroporus Faraji, Jalaeian and McMurtry, 2008: 65.

Diagnosis (female) — Dorsal shield without setae Z3 and solenostomes (prominent pores), with distinct small pores, peritremes extending to level of, or just passing, the bases of setae z2, calyx of spermatheca saccular, without neck and with a C-shaped atrium, fixed digit of chelicera with two subapical teeth (Faraji et al. 2008).

Female

(See Faraji et al. 2008).

Male

(Figure 1) (n= 5)

Figure 1. Paraseiulus amacroporus Faraji et al. (Adult male): A – Dorsal view of idiosoma; B – Ventral view of idiosoma; C – Chelicera; D – Genu II; E – Basitarsus IV.

Idiosoma oval; setal pattern: 13A:8A/10: JV-2, 3, 4: ZV-I,3. All idiosomal and leg setae smooth, except Z5 and J5, barbed.

Dorsum (Fig. 1A) — Dorsal shield reticulated, 260 – 280 long, 170 – 190 wide at level of R1, with 21 pairs of setae and 10 pairs of poroids and solenostomes (prominent pores) absent. Length of setae: j1 11 – 13, j3 14 – 16, j4 15 – 16, j5 15 – 17, j6 20 – 22, J2 21 – 23, J5 11 – 13, z2 20 – 21, z3 21 – 23, z4 23 – 25, z5 14 – 16, z6 15 – 17, Z4 24 – 26, Z5 36 – 38, s4 23 – 25, s6 24 – 27, S2 23 – 25, S4 23 – 26, S5 27 – 30, r3 20 – 23, R1 19 – 21.

Venter (Fig. 1B) — Sternogenital shield smooth, 125 – 130 long, anterior and posterior margins convex; five pairs of setae subequal in length ( ST1 18 – 20, ST2 17 – 18, ST3 17 – 18, ST4 17 – 19, ST5 17 – 18); three pairs of poroids (iv1-iv3). Ventrianal shield reticulated, subtriangular; anterior margin concave, 113 – 118 long and 120 – 132 wide at level of setae JV1; two pairs of pre-anal setae ( JV1 and ZV2); three pairs of poroids; no preanal pores. Opisthogastric cuticle with one pair of setae ( JV5) and one pair of poroids. Length of opisthogastric setae: JV1 14 – 15, JV5 20 – 21, ZV2 15, PA 13 – 14 and PST 14 – 15.

Peritreme (Fig. 1A) — Extending to level of setae z2, 105 – 112 long.

Chelicera (Fig. 1C) — Chelicera 79 – 83 long; fixed digit 16 – 17 long, with two subapical teeth; pilus dentilis 3 long; movable digit 16 – 18 long and with one tooth, shaft of spermadactyl 9 – 11 long, arched and heel shaped distally, 4 long.

Legs I-IV (Figs. 1D-E) — Lengths: 228 – 235, 200 – 215, 220 – 225, 280 – 300, respectively. Genu II with eight setae (2 2/1 2/0 1); Basitarsus IV with a pointed macroseta, 25 – 30 long.

Deutonymph (female)

(Figure 2) (n= 6)

Figure 2. Paraseiulus amacroporus Faraji et al. (Deutonymph) A – Dorsal view of idiosoma (♀); B – Ventral view of idiosoma (♀); C – Chelicera (♀); D – Genu II (♀); E – Basitarsus IV (♀); F – Ventral view of idiosoma (♂)

Idiosoma oval. All idiosomal and leg setae smooth, except S2, S4, S5, Z4, Z5 and J5 barbed.

Dorsum (Fig. 2A) — Dorsal shield reticulated, with mediolateral incisions, 265 – 270 long, 140 – 150 wide at level of setae R1, with 19 pairs of setae, 13 pairs of poroids and solenostomes (prominent pores) absent. Length of setae: j1 13 – 15, j3 20 – 21, j4 13 – 15, j5 12 – 14, j6 20, J2 19 – 22, J5 11 – 13, z2 19 – 20, z3 18 – 19, z4 20 – 23, z5 13 – 15, z6 13 – 15, Z4 30 – 33, Z5 34 – 36, s4 25 – 26, s6 22 – 25, S2 29 – 31, S4 30, S5 31 – 33, r3 17 – 19, R1 18 – 20.

Venter (Fig. 2B) — Sternal shield smooth, anterior margin convex, with five pairs of setae subequal in length (ST1 18 – 21, ST2 19 – 20, ST3 18 – 19, ST4 17 – 18, ST5 17 – 18), three pairs of poroids (iv1-iv3). Opisthogastric cuticle with six pairs of setae (JV1, JV4, JV5, ZV1, ZV2, ZV3) and five pairs of poroids. Length of opisthogastric setae: JV1 14 – 16, JV4 11 – 13, JV5 22 – 25, ZV1 14 – 15, ZV2 12 – 14, ZV3 10 – 12, PA 12 – 13, PST 13 – 14.

Peritreme (Fig. 2A) — Incomplete, fragmented.

Chelicera (Fig. 2C) — Chelicera 84 – 95 long; fixed digit 17 – 19 long, with two subapical teeth; pilus dentilis 3 – 4 long; movable digit 16 – 18 long and with one tooth.

Legs I-IV (Figs. 2D-E) — Lengths: 260 – 270, 215 – 235, 225 – 235, 280 – 310, respectively. Genu IV with eight setae (2 2/1 2/0 1). Basitarsus IV with a knobbed macroseta, 31 – 35 long.

Deutonymph (male)

(Figure 2) (n= 1)

The idiosomal and cheliceral characters are like those of female deutonymph however it can be distinguished by the number of setae in opisthogastric region (Fig. 2F) and the length of the dorsal shield (225). Opisthogastric cuticle with four pairs of setae (JV1, JV5, ZV1, ZV2) and four pairs of poroids. Length of opisthogastric setae: JV1 15, JV5 21, ZV1 11, ZV2 12, PA 11, PST 11.

Legs I-IV — Lengths: 235, 207, 198, 258, respectively. Genu IV with eight setae (2 2/1 2/0 1). Basitarsus IV with a knobbed macroseta, 30 long.

Protonymph

(Figure 3) (n= 3)

Figure 3. Paraseiulus amacroporus Faraji et al. (Protonymph): A – Dorsal view of idiosoma; B – Ventral view of idiosoma; C – Chelicera; D – Genu II; E – Basitarsus IV.

Idiosoma oval. All idiosomal and leg setae smooth, except S2, S4, S5, Z4, Z5 and J5 barbed.

Dorsum (Fig. 3A) — Separate podonotal and opisthonotal shields; podonotal shield smooth, 122 – 127 long and 100 – 105 wide at level of s4, with nine pairs of setae (j1, j3, j4, j5, j6, z2, z4, z5, s4), four pairs of poroids and solenostomes (prominent pores) absent. Opisthonotal shield reticulated, 78 – 80 long, 56 – 61 wide at level of S4, with five pairs of serrated setae and four pairs of poroids; setae J2, s6, S2, r3 and R1 on soft integument (Fig. 3A). Length of setae: j1 14 – 15, j3 18 – 19, j4 12 – 14, j5 12 – 13, j6 19 – 20, J2 19, J5 10 – 11, z2 20, z4 27, z5 13, Z4 33 – 34, Z5 37, s4 19 – 21, s6 24, S2 26 – 27, S4 31, S5 33, r3 18 – 19, R1 20.

Venter (Fig. 3B) – Sternal shield smooth, with three pairs of setae subequal in length ( ST1-3: 17 – 18) and two pairs of poroids (iv1-iv2). Opisthogastric cuticle with three pairs of smooth setae (JV1, JV5, ZV2) and five pair of poroids on small platelets. Anal opening surrounded with 3 setae (PA and PST). Length of opisthogastric setae: JV1 15, JV5 22, ZV2 10 – 11, PA12, PST 14.

Peritreme (Fig. 3A) — Vestigial; 15 – 18 long.

Chelicera (Fig. 3C) — Chelicera 85 long; fixed digit 15 long, with two teeth; pilus dentilis 2 long; movable digit 14 – 15 long and with one tooth.

Legs I-IV (Figs. 3D-E) — Lengths: 210 – 215, 184 – 185, 170 – 175 and 220 – 225, respectively. Genu II with six setae (1 2/0 2/0 1). Basitarsus IV with a knobbed macroseta, 31 long.

Material examined

All specimens are collected from leaves of pistachio trees, Pistacia atlantica Desf. (Anacardiaceae), Shiraz region (29°25′41″N, 53°13′37″E and altitude 1755 m a.s.l) (Fars province), Southwestern Iran, 25 vii 2016, by Samira Bakhshi. All specimens are deposited in the mite collection of the Acarology Laboratory of the Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.

Discussion

Paraseiulus is considered as a genus in the Phytoseiidae where sexual dimorphism occurs, with setae z6 present in females but variable in males (Chant and McMurtry, 1994). However, in the present species z6 is present in the males and also in the male and female deutonymphs; Setae z6 are absent in the protonymph and obviously in the larva. Sexual dimorphism in the deutonymphs is typical for members of the Phytoseiidae (Arutunjan, 1970) [for example number of paired setae in the opisthogaster region in this species 6 (♀) vs. 4 (♂) and length of dorsal shield (♀ > ♂)]. Genu II has 8 (2 2/1 2/0 1) setae in adults and deutonymphs but only 6 (1 2/0 2/0 1) in the protonymph. Furthermore, the macrosetae on basitarsus IV in immatures are knobbed in this species while pointed in adults. Comparison of characters of stages are presented in table 1.

Table 1. Comparison of characters of stages of Paraseiulus amacroporus Faraji et al., 2008. P.: Protonymph, D.: Deutonymph, A.: Adult.
Acknowledgements

This study was financially supported by the Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.

References

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Article editorial history

Date received:
2017-02-09
Date accepted:
2017-04-26
Date published:
2017-07-04

Edited by:
Kreiter, Serge

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
2017 Asali Fayaz, Bahman; Khanjani, Mohammad; Bakhshi, Samira and Ueckermann, Edward A.

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