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Ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Madagascar and neighbouring islands

Niedbala, Wojciech1

1Department of Animal Taxonomy and Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan, Poland

2017 - Volume: 57 Issue: 1 pages: 3-205

DOI: 10.1051/acarologia/20164149
ZooBank LSID: E0A5079D-4BA7-4665-91D6-F31886EAF86E

Keywords

soil mites oribatids box mites monograph Madagascar hotspot

Abstract

Diagnoses of 111 ptyctimous species known from Madagascar and neighbouring islands Seychelles, Mauritius, Comoros and Reunion (MAG) are presented. Additionally, 44 species have been redescribed based on type material. Four species are new for the Afrotropical Region, and nine are new for MAG. Keys for identification of species and higher taxa have also been constructed. The percentage ratio of Protoplophoridae to Archoplophoridae: Mesoplophoridae: Euphthiracaroidea is 2: 5: 27: 66. The proportions of species representing two families – the more primitive Oribotritiidae and less primitive Euphthiracaridae of Euphthiracaroidea are similar. Within Phthiracaroidea the more primitive Phthiracaridae are less abundant than Steganacaridae. Among Euphthiracaridea the most abundant are the genera: Oribotritia and Acrotritia, while from among Phthiracaroidea by far the most abundant species is the genus Notophthiracarus, while Hoplophorella and Phthiracarus are also rather abundant. The proportions of the number of species from higher taxa are usually similar to those in the fauna of other zoogeographic regions in the southern hemisphere. The fauna of MAG is characterised by a high number of related species (88), endemic 68 (61 %) and indigenous 20 (18%) as well as a relatively high number of pantropical species (11). All these proportions of species are similar to other zoogeographic Regions of the southern hemisphere: Afrotropical, Oriental, Australasian and Neotropical. The fauna of MAG (111 species) is closer to that of the Afrotropical Region (200 species) (15% common species) than to that of the Oriental Region (262 species) (4% common species). A significant number of widespread species (14) occur in the faunas of MAG and the Oriental Region, and four of them seem to be of Oriental origin. The fauna of Madagascar and neighbouring islands shows no similarity to that of India. In 171 soil samples collected in 2010-2015 on Madagascar the number of species found was 78. The eastern part of the island is the most abundant in species – 67 species; the northern part is less abundant – 53 species and, central part is the least abundant – 34 species. The highest number of endemites was found in the fauna of the eastern and central parts of Madagascar. The unique character of Madagascan fauna is the presence of a high number of endemic species among the dominant species and species of high frequency. In the new material the most abundant and most frequent species is the endemic Oribotritia striata, followed by five endemic species Protophthiracarus araios, Oribotritia mahunkai, Indotritia paulyi, Notophthiracarus similis, Notophthiracarus zebrus and two pantropical species Acrotritia vestita and Indotritia javensis. The fauna of neighbouring islands does not show an Oriental origin and is closely related to that of Madagascar, more than half of the number of species (17) occur also in Madagascar but nearly a quarter of the species are endemites. The fauna of MAG has been compared 12 years after the former report, some similarities and differences were found.

Introduction

The status of biodiversity hotspots is assigned to the areas showing taxonomic uniqueness, high species endemism, richness of species, presence of rare species and exceptional evolutional and ecological phenomena (Myers 2003). The biodiversity hotspots are 35 regions in the world and make a little more than 17 % land on the earth (Sloan et al. 2014).

One of such hotspots is Madagascar and the Indian Ocean islands. This geographic unit (Brooks et al. 2002) includes the eastern islands of Africa: Madagascar with Mauritius, Seychelles, Reunion and Comoros. Madagascar, is an island to the east of Africa and is isolated from the land by the Mozambique channel. Madagascar was separated from Africa in Jurassic, 165 million years ago, and then about 80 million years ago in Cretaceous it drifted away from India. The Seychelles separated from India about 65 mya. (Goodman & Benstead 2004). Mauritius, Reunion and the Comoros are created by volcanic activity. Comoro about 15 mya (Zinke et al. 2003), Mauritius and Reunion about 8 mya (Duncan et al. 1990). At present Madagascar is located about 400 km east of Africa, 4,000 km from India, 5,000 km from Antarctica and 5,400 km from Australia (Glaw & Vences 2007). It is the fourth largest island of the world and it occupies 1.4 % land of the earth. Together with the neighbouring islands it is one of the areas richest in taxa showing great concentration of highly diverse and endemic flora and fauna (Myers 2003). The high diversity of fauna and flora of Madagascar is related to a large range of available habitats and a long time isolation of the island from neighbouring land. Moreover, climatic oscillations in glacial and interglacial periods were conducive to fragmentation of ecosystems and accelerated speciation processes. The high mountains and numerous rivers were the natural barriers facilitating isolation of species. The high level of endemism is a consequence of incessant existence of rain forest, for about 30 million years and long-term (about 10 million years) isolation from the forests of Africa (Ali & Huber 2010, Burgess et al. 2007, Hall et al. 2009). A necessary condition for protection of this and other centres of high biodiversity is the correct identification and detail description of the species present in the area. Taxonomical studies of mites fit in this programme.

Studies of oribatid mites, including ptyctimous species, from Madagascar were started in the middle of the last century by Balogh (1958, 1962). After a break of nearly twenty years from 1978 the works were continued by Mahunka who studied ptyctimous mites fauna of neighbouring islands of Madagascar, and described the first species from Madagascar (1983b). Results of his studies of the fauna of neighbouring islands of Madagascar are summarised in Mahunka (1988a), while the results of his work on the fauna of Madagascar are summed up in Mahunka (2002). Mahunka continued working on the taxonomy of the fauna of oribatid mites showing high endemism of the Madagascar fauna (2009a). He planned (Mahunka 2010) to write a monograph on oribatid mites of Madagascar and in 2011 he described the last species from Madagascar – M. (M.) similis. Niedbala (1988) described two new species from Comoros, starting a cycle of studies on the fauna of Madagascar and neighbouring islands. In 2004 Niedbala (2004c) summed up the studies on fauna and zoogeography of the region, proving the presence of 57 species of ptyctimous mites. The studies were continued together with J. Starý and they have provided several descriptions of new species in subsequent years.

This monograph is an attempt to sum up the knowledge on ptyctimous mite species of Madagascar and neighbouring islands according to bibliography date. Moreover, additional material was examined from new samples collected in 2010-2015 (received courtesy from Dr. J. Starý).

The inseparable part of this monograph is the key for identification of all known species of Madagascar and neighbouring islands.

Material and methods

The majority of material analysed in this monograph has been provided by Dr J. Starý from the Institute of Soil Biology, Ceské Budejovice. The material comes from three expeditions organised by Dr Banar (Brno) to different parts of Madagascar, in the years 2010-2015, at which together with his collaborators L.S. Rahanitriniaina, R. Raveloson, E.M. Rabotoson, he collected samples from litter by extraction using modified Winkler extractors. The methods used for observation and determination of mites were described in Niedbala (2000, 2011). Measurements are given in micrometres. Specimens shorter than 600 μm I consider small, 600 – 1000 μm medium and specimens longer than 1 mm are considered large.

The number of specimens found in the newly analysed samples is given in parentheses.

In analyses I compare the fauna of Madagascar and neighbouring islands with the faunas of other regions of the world (Niedbala 1998a, 2000, 2001, 2004a, b, 2006a, 2011).

In this monograph I sometimes use the abbreviation MAG which stands for Madagascar and neighbouring islands (Reunion, Mauritius, Seychelles and Comoros).

As this paper has the form of a catalogue, I do not give names of the authors of the descriptions of relevant species in the list of references.

For a few species I had a choice of a few drawings made on the basis of different materials and I always chose the drawing made on the basis of the material collected in Madagascar.

List of redescribed species

Almost half of ptyctimous mites species have been described by the author of this monograph, a large number of them together with Dr J. Starý. Over ¼ of the species have been described by Prof. S. Mahunka from the Hungarian Natural History Museum of Budapest. In order to present the taxonomically reliable fauna, I tried to redescribe the species described by Mahunka and other authors on the basis of the types. The list of types or specimens of the redescribed species is given below together with the paper in which the redescription was made: holotype of Mesoplophora (Parplophora) leviseta Hammer, 1979 (Niedbala 1985); paratype of Hoplophthiracarus kugohi Aoki, 1959; specimen from La Reunion of Hoplophorella minisetosa Mahunka, 1978; paratype of Hoplophorella schauenbergi Mahunka, 1978 (syn. of A. (H.) hamatus); paratype of Steganacarus tuberculosissimus Mahunka, 1978; paratype of Phthiracarus pygmaeus Balogh, 1958, paratype of Steganacarus multirugosus Mahunka, 1978; paratype of Steganacarus tuberculosissimus Mahunka, 1978 (Niedbala 1992); paratype of Hoplophthiracarus dactyloscopicus Mahunka, 1978; paratype of Steganacarus cornutus Mahunka, 1978 (syn. of A. (H.) multirugosus (Mahunka, 1978)); paratype of Hoplophthiracarus regalis Mahunka, 1978 (syn. of A. (H.) singularis) (Niedbala, 1994); holotype of Indotritia heterotricha Mahunka, 1984 (syn. of I. krakatauensis) (Niedbala, 1998); paratype of Oribotritia paraspinosa Mahunka, 1999; paratype of Rhysotritia granulata Mahunka 1999; holotype of Niedbalaia incredibilis Mahunka, 1999; holotype of Microtritia striatissima Mahunka, 1999; typus of Microtritia tropica Märkel, 1964; holotype of Hoplophthiracarus africanus Mahunka, 1984 (syn. of P. kugohi); paratype of Hoplophthiracarus atypicus Mahunka, 1988 (syn. of A. inelegans); paratype of Hoplophthiracarus magnus Mahunka, 1988 (syn. of A. sculptilis); paratype of Hoplophthiracarus trichosus Mahunka, 1988; paratype of Notophthiracarus dactyloscopicus (Mahunka, 1978); paratype of Hoplophorella benoiti Mahunka, 1984 (syn. of A. (H.) stilifer) (Niedbala 2001).

I also received in 2013 and 2014 years the following types of species described by Prof. S. Mahunka through the courtesy of Dr. Dr. E. Horváth, L. Forró or L. Dányi, Hungarian Natural History Museum: holotypes of Microtritia striatissima Mahunka, 1999 and Hoplophorella balazsi Mahunka, 1983 and paratypes of: Bursoplophora madagassica Mahunka, 1994, Mesoplophora (Parplophora) madegassica Mahunka, 2009, Mesoplophora similis Mahunka, 2011, Oribotritia paraspinosa Mahunka, 1999, Oribotritia spinosa (Mahunka, 1988), Oribotritia tiwi Mahunka, 1987, Bukitritia timah Mahunka, 1990, Rhysotritia clavata spiculifera Mahunka, 1991, Rhysotritia granulata Mahunka, 1999, Microtritia hauseri Mahunka, 1993, Microtritia stratissima Mahunka, 1999, Archiphthiracarus schauenbergi Mahunka, 1988 (syn. of P. crispus), Austrophthiracarus aokii malagasensis Mahunka, 2010, Notophthiracarus inusitatus Mahunka, 2010, Notophthiracarus pseudosomalicus Mahunka, 2010, Hoplophorella benoiti Mahunka, 1992 (syn. of A. (H.) stilifer), Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) lemurius (Mahunka, 1993), Hoplophorella (Kakophthiracarus) mwali Mahunka, 1994. These types were examined and redescribed in this paper. Finally, I received in 2015 the following types of species described by Prof. S. Mahunka through the courtesy of Dr P. J. Schwendinger, Nature History Museum of Geneva: holotype and 2 paratypes of Phthiracarus clavifer Mahunka, 1988 and holotype of Hoplophorella reducta Mahunka, 1988.

Unfortunately Dr E. Horváth informed me in 2014 that the types of Hoplophthiracarus (Plonaphacarus) tanzicus Mahunka, 1993 were not found in the collection.

Localities of sample collection (2010-2015) over the the territory of MAG

The newly collected material (2010-2015) described and analysed in this monograph contains the samples from MAG (the original sample numbers are kept).

The samples came from nine different geographical areas of Madagascar (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Areas (1-9) of collected samples in Madagascar

All samples with a list of species and specimens found are included in the Appendix.

The northern part

1. Amber Mountain National Park, isolated patch of montane forest, mid-altitude rainforest and dry deciduous forest. The "Montagne des Français" Reserve is a protected area consisting principally of dry deciduous forest.

The north-western part

2. Ankarafantsika National Park, relatively low and dwarf deciduous forest in savannah and forests around Lake Ravelobe.

The central-eastern part

3. Reservation Expérimentale de Vohimana humid forest at mid-altitude

5. Beforona commune with semideciduous forest

6. Andasibe National Park, the primary, dense, humid forests with lianas, moss, fern tress and a lot of orchids 7. Ranomafana National Park tropical cloud rainforest

The central part

4. Ambohitantely Special Reserve, several areas with primary rainforest (certainly the last ones in the high plateau in central Madagascar) and grassland savanna with gramineous vegetation.

The south-western part

8. Andranomena Special Reserve, a small and flat reserve of dense deciduous dry forest with some seasonal small lakes with endemic aquatic plants. 9. Zombitse National Park dry forest, marshes and savannas.

Classification
List of species
ENARTHRONOTA Grandjean 1947

Arthroptyctima Grandjean, 1967

Protoplophoroidea Ewing, 1917

Protoplophoridae Ewing, 1917

Genus: Prototritia Berlese, 1916

P. armadillo Berlese, 1916

Genus: Bursoplophora Subias et Pérez-Íñigo, 1978

B. madagassica Mahunka, 1994

Hypochthonioidea Berlese, 1910

Archoplophoridae Grandjean, 1967

Genus: Archoplophora Hammen, 1959

A. rostralis (Willmann 1930)

Mesoplophoridae Ewing, 1917

Genus: Mesoplophora Berlese, 1904

Subgenus: Mesoplophora Berlese, 1904

M. (M.) africana Balogh, 1968

M. (M.) invisitata Niedbala, 1983

M. (M.) similis Mahunka, 2011

Subgenus: Parplophora Niedbala, 1986

M. (P.) leviseta Hammer, 1979

M. (P.) madegassica Mahunka, 2009

MIXONOMATA Grandjean, 1969

Euptyctima Grandjean, 1954

Euphthiracaroidea Jacot, 1930

Oribotritiidae Grandjean, 1954

Genus: Oribotritia Jacot, 1924

O. breviseta Niedbala et Starý, 2014

O. mahunkai Niedbala et Starý, 2013

O. paraspinosa Mahunka, 1999

O. perpusilla Niedbala et Starý, 2016

O. spinosa (Mahunka, 1988)

O. striata Mahunka, 2009

O. succincta Niedbala, 1998

O. tiwi Mahunka, 1987

O. virgulata Niedbala, 2001

Genus: Indotritia Jacot, 1929

I. javensis (Sellnick, 1923)

I. krakatauensis (Sellnick, 1923)

I. paulyi Niedbala, 1998

I. tripartita Niedbala, 1998

Euphthiracaridae Jacot, 1930

Genus: Euphthiracarus Ewing, 1917

Subgenus: Euphthiracarus Ewing, 1917

E. (E.) duplex Niedbala et Starý, 2014

E. (E.) incredibilis (Mahunka, 1999)

E. (E.) netron Niedbala et Starý, 2014

E. (E.) paranetron Niedbala et Starý, 2016

Genus: Acrotritia Jacot, 1923

A. ardua (C.L. Koch, 1841)

A. divida (Mahunka, 1991)

A. granulata (Mahunka, 1999)

A. paraardua Niedbala et Starý, 2014

A. paradikra Niedbala et Starý, 2014

A. refracta (Niedbala, 1998)

A. rustica (Niedbala, 1991)

A. spiculifera (Mahunka, 1991)

A. vestita (Berlese, 1913)

Genus: Bukitritia Mahunka, 1990

B. timah Mahunka, 1990

Genus: Microtritia Märkel, 1964

M. hauseri Mahunka, 1993

M. striatissima Mahunka, 1989

M. tropica Märkel, 1964

Phthiracaroidea Perty, 1841

Phthiracaridae Perty, 1841

Genus: Phthiracarus Perty, 1839

P. anonymus Grandjean, 1933

P. baloghorum (Mahunka, 1997)

P. crispus Hammer, 1972

P. lentulus (C. L. Koch, 1841)

P. nitens (Nicolet, 1855)

P. ochthus Niedbala, 2001

P. paracrispus Niedbala et Starý, 2016

P. parapocsi Niedbala, 2001

P. pygmaeus Balogh, 1958

P. ranomafanensis Niedbala et Starý, 2016

Steganacaridae Niedbala 1986

Genus: Plonaphacarus Niedbala, 1986

P. kugohi (Aoki, 1959)

P. machadoi (Balogh, 1958)

P. persimilis Niedbala, 1994

P. tanzicus (Mahunka, 1993)

Genus: Hoplophthiracarus Jacot, 1933

H. paratryssos Niedbala et Starý, 2015

Genus: Arphthicarus Niedbala, 1994

A. inelegans (Niedbala, 1986)

A. paratinctus Niedbala et Starý, 2015

A. phoxos Niedbala et Starý, 2016

A. sculptilis (Niedbala, 1988)

A. trichosus (Mahunka, 1988)

A. veteratorius (Niedbala, 1988)

Genus: Protophthiracarus Balogh, 1972

P. araios Niedbala, 2001

P. mahunkai Niedbala et Starý, 2013

P. mayottei Niedbala, 2001

Genus: Notophthiracarus Ramsay, 1966

N. andasibensis Niedbala et Starý, 2014

N. bicarinatus Niedbala, 2001

N. clavifer (Mahunka, 1988)

N. dactyloscopicus (Mahunka, 1978)

N. dispersus Niedbala et Starý, 2015

N. echinus (Balogh, 1962)

N. inusitatus Mahunka, 2010

N. lineatus Niedbala et Starý, 2015

N. liratus Niedbala et Starý, 2015

N. malagasensis (Mahunka, 2010)

N. medius Niedbala et Starý, 2016

N. micidus Niedbala et Starý, 2015

N. obliquus Niedbala et Starý, 2015

N. pandanensis Niedbala et Starý, 2014

N. parapaulianus Niedbala et Starý, 2016

N. parareductus (Mahunka, 1992)

N. parasomalicus Niedbala, 2001

N. parasummersi Niedbala, 2001

N. parilloi Niedbala, 2001

N. paulianus (Balogh, 1962)

N. procerus Niedbala, 2001

N. pseudosomalicus Mahunka, 2010

N. puylaerti Niedbala, 2001

N. quasisimilis Niedbala et Starý, 2015

N. quasisomalicus Niedbala et Starý, 2014

N. rafalskii Niedbala, 1997

N. reticularis Niedbala et Starý, 2014

N. similis Niedbala, 2001

N. summersi Niedbala, 2001

N. zebrus (Balogh, 1962)

Genus: Atropacarus Ewing 1917

Subgenus: Hoplophorella Berlese, 1923

A. (H.) andrei (Balogh, 1958)

A. (H.) balazsi (Mahunka, 1983)

A. (H.) cucullatus (Ewing, 1909)

A. (H.) distinctus Niedbala et Starý, 2014

A. (H.) hamatus (Ewing, 1909)

A. (H.) lemurius Mahunka, 1993

A. (H.) mahunkai Niedbala et Starý, 2013

A. (H.) minisetosus (Mahunka, 1978)

A. (H.) multirugosus (Mahunka, 1978)

A. (H.) mwali (Mahunka, 1994)

A. (H.) oblongus (Niedbala, 1883)

A. (H.) paralemurius Niedbala et Starý, 2016

A. (H.) parastenos Niedbala et Starý, 2016

A. (H.) singularis (Selnick, 1959)

A. (H.) stilifer (Hammer, 1961)

A. (H.) tuberculosissimus (Mahunka, 1978)

A. (H.) vitrinus (Berlese, 1913)

Subgenus: Atropacarus Ewing, 1917

A. (A.) primus Niedbala et Starý, 2015

A. (A.) striculus (C.L. Koch, 1836)

Diagnoses of higher taxa and review of species
Arthroptyctima Grandjean, 1967

Protoplophoridae, Archoplophoridae, Mesoplophoridae and Apoplophoridae absent in fauna of MAG. Body ptychoid. "Notogaster" divided by transverse sutures and posterior part separated from anterior part by furrow and free or fused with ventral region. If not fused, distinct ventral plate shows genital and anal plates well separated (brachypyline). Larvae and nymphs ptychoid.

This group belong to the supercohort Enarthronota Grandjean, 1947.

Protoplophoridae Ewing, 1917

Integument punctate, weakly pigmented, when threatened capable of rolling into a ball, in such a way that mouth organs, legs and genitoaggenital plates are covered (in Euptyctima the genitoaggenital region remains uncovered). Gnathosoma, genital plate and the legs are covered by prodorsum. "Notogaster" is divided in four shields: unpaired the largest dorsal, anterior – pronotaspis, unpaired dorsal, posterior – metanotaspis (pygidium), divided into three, four segments and two symmetric lateral – pleuraspis. 16 pairs of setae (only in Cryptoplophora 15 pairs): c 1, c 2, c 3, cp, d 1, d 2, e 1, e 2, f 1, f 2, h 1, h 2, h 3, ps 1, ps 2, ps 3. Very minuscule setae d 1 and d 2, hitherto found and illustrated only for pantropical species Aedoplophora glomerata (Grandjean 1954), in the species of the genus Prototritia (Bernini 1983) and in the species Hauseroplophora soniae Mahunka, 1977 (from Kenya). Supposedly present in the other species. Pygidium always shorter as pronotaspis divided by two sutures on three shields and mobile. The animal is able to fully draw it or withdraw it from under pronotaspis. 14 pairs of setae present. Genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates elongated, touching.

Bursoplophora Subías and Pérez-Ínigo, 1978

Setae of body simple, smooth. Prodorsum; rostral tectum not incised; sensilli spindle shaped; distance between rostral setae shorter than between lamellar setae. "Notogaster"; setae e and f longer than other setae. Ventral region; mandibule with one seta; palpi 4-segmented; genitoaggenital plates completely fused with large posterior tectum; anoadanal plates completely fused with one pair of more or less deep pouches and depressed in anterior part; anoadanal setae arranged in two rows. Legs heterotridactylous, central claw stronger than lateral ones, claws shorter than tarsi.

Distribution — Pantropical. Neotropical, Afrotropical and Mediterranean Regions.

Bursoplophora madagassica Mahunka, 1994

(Figure 2)

Bursoplophora madagassica: Niedbala 2004b

Figure 2. Bursoplophora madagassica Mahunka, 1994 (paratype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – lateral view of body; C – pygidial region; D – ventral region

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype: prodorsum: length 99, width 63, height 48, ss 33; "Notogaster": length 126, width 126, height 88; length of genitoaggenital plate 28; length of anoadanal plate 96. Measurements of paratype are smaller than reported by Mahunka (1994).

Small-sized species; colour yellowish, pygidium covered with small areoles. Prodorsum with rounded rostrum; sensilli spindle-shaped, with fine cilia in interior, distal part; setae in, le, ro, exa fine, smooth, similar in length; setae exp longer and ciliate; rostral setae nearer the anterior end of rostrum than to lamellar setae. "Notogaster" with minute setae of rows c, h and ps; setae of rows e and f long and spindle shaped; distance between setae e 1 and between setae e 1-e 2 very small, almost the same. Ventral region; formula of epimeres: 3-2-2-3; genitoaggenital plates with 9 pairs (6+3) of setae; anoadanal plates with 6 pairs (3+3) of setae; anoadanal pouches present.

Localities in Madagascar (southwestern part): Mahunka 1994a.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Prototritia (Berlese, 1916)

Prodorsum with ridges; rostral tectum not incised. Ventral region; palps 5-segmented; genitoaggenital plates larger than anoadanal plates with eight or nine pairs of setae; anoadanal plates with four pairs of setae in one row or eight pairs of setae situated in one row, one posterior pair displaced towards inner margin. Tarsi heterotridactylous, claws shorter than tarsi.

Distribution — Pantropical. Neotropical, Afrotropical Regions and Mediterranean part of Europe.

Prototritia armadillo (Berlese, 1916)

(Figure 3)

Arthrhoplophora (Prototritia) armadillo Berlese 1916

Aedoplophora africana Mahunka 1977 syn. by Niedbala 2004b

Prototritia armadillo: Niedbala 2004b

Figure 3. Prototritia armadillo (Berlese, 1916). A (type of Berlese after Mahunka 1980); B-G (holotype after Bernini 1983); H-K (holotype of Aedoplophora africana Mahunka, 1977 synonym of P. armadillo); L (specimen from MAG-042): A – lateral view of body; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – sensillus; D – ventral side of rostral border of prodorsum; E – opisthosoma, lateral view; F – genitoaggenital plates; G – anoadanal plates; H – prodorsum, dorsal view; I – sensillus; J – genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates; K – posterior part of opisthosoma, ventral view; L – lateral view of body.

Diagnosis — Measurements: length of body 320, height 240; sub. A. africana: length of prodorsum 98, length of "Notogaster" 222, height of "Notogaster" 174 (Niedbala 2004b). Measurements of specimen from MAG-042: prodorsum: length 202, height 76, ss 71, in 18, le and ex 7, ro 40; "notogaster": length 243, height 190, c 1 30.

Small-sized species; colour yellowish. Prodorsum with lateral carinae; sensilli spindle shaped slightly flattened with ciliated margins; other setae small, rostral setae the longest, ciliated, directed inwards; distance between rostral setae slightly smaller than between lamellar setae. "Notogaster" with normal chaetotaxy, setae e and f longer than others; distance between setae e1 -e2 larger than between setae f1 -f2 . Ventral region; palps 5 segmented with formula: 0-2-1-3-13(1); epimeral formula: 3-2-3-4; genitoaggenital plates slightly larger than anoadanal plates, with 9 pairs (7+2) of smooth setae; anoadanal plates with 9 pairs of setae almost in one row; 8 pairs situated in one row, one pair posterior displaced towards inner margin.

Species new for MAG.

Distribution — Afrotropical, eastern part.

Archoplophoridae Grandjean, 1967

Monotypic family with the diagnosis as that of genus.

Archoplophora Hammen, 1959

Surface of body smooth; setae smooth; sensilli without heads, spinose; exobothridial setae smaller than diameter of bothridia. Genital plate square, anal and genital plates almost touching; adanal plates distinct; "ventral" plate with nine pairs of setae; nine pairs of genital setae with formula: 8+1; three pairs of anal setae; three pairs of adanal setae.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan

Archoplophora rostralis (Willmann, 1930)

(Figure 4)

Phthiracarulus rostralis Willmann 1930

Phthiracarulus laevis Jacot 1938: Niedbala 1984a

Archoplophora laevis: Marshall et al. 1987

Archoplophora villosa Aoki 1980: Niedbala 1984a

Archoplophora rostralis: Aoki 1980, Niedbala 1984a, 2000, 2001b, 2002, 2003, 2004b, Subías 2004

Figure 4. Archoplophora rostralis (Willmann, 1930) (specimen from Korea): A – lateral view of body; B – sensillus; C – ventral side of opisthosoma.

Diagnosis — Measurements of specimen from Korea: prodorsum 176, "notogaster" 224.

Minute species; colour yellow. Prodorsum with pointed rostrum; sensilli thick with several thin spines; setae fine, interlamellar setae slightly longer than other setae. "Notogaster" with eight pairs of setae of unequal length, setae c3 fine, situated near anterior margin, setae cp the longest, setae c1-2 remote from anterior margin, setae e1 and e2 thick. Five posterior pairs of "ventral" setae thicker than four anterior pairs.

Comparison — This species is distinguishable by the presence of genital and anal plates touching, adanal plates distinct, three pairs of anal, three pairs of adanal setae.

Species new for Afrotropical Region

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan.

Mesoplophoridae Ewing, 1917

Cuticle smooth; with fine, irregular microsculpture. "Notogaster" of adults represented by joined CDE segments with eight pairs of setae, segments FHP joined with adanal segments. Genital and anal plates separated; 7-9 pairs of genital setae, adults with transverse scissure dividing genital plates into two parts, anterior with one to two pairs of setae, posterior with five to eight pairs of setae; seven to 10 pairs of "ventral" setae; two to four pairs of anal setae.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan.

Mesoplophora Berlese, 1904

Distance between genital and anal plates equal to half the length of anal plates; nine to 10 pairs of "ventral" setae; two to four pairs of anal setae; seven pairs of genital setae, formula 6+1 or 5+2; setation of palps: 0-2-0-3-12+1.

Mesoplophora (Mesoplophora) Berlese, 1904

Two pairs of anal setae present.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan.

Mesoplophora (Mesoplophora) africana Balogh, 1958

(Figure 5)

Mesoplophora africana Balogh, 1958

Mesoplophora insularis Pérez-Iñigo, 1983 syn. by Niedbala 2001

Mesoplophora ifeana Badejo et al. 2001 (Badejo et al. 2001b) syn. by Niedbala 2008a

Mesoplophora (Mesoplophora) africana: Niedbala 2001

Figure 5. Mesoplophora (Mesoplophora) africana Balogh, 1958. A, B (after Mahunka 1985); C-H (after specimens from MAG-015): A – lateral view of body; B – ventral side; C – adult, lateral view of body; D – adult, genital plate; E – tritonymph, lateral view of body; F – tritonymph, ventral side; G – deutonymph, lateral view of body; H – deutonymph, ventral side.

Diagnosis — Measurements of specimens from sample MAG-015. Adult: prodorsum: length 215, height 101; "notogaster": length 303, height 187; tritonymph: length of prodorsum 202, "notogaster": length 271, width 215; length of genital plate 83, length of anal and adanal plates 96; deutonymph: length of prodorsum 174; length of "notogaster" 245; length of genital plate 63; length of anal and adanal plates 88.

Small-sized species; adult specimen is similar in size as specimen from type series.

Deutonymph — Body almost transparent. Prodorsum with fine interlamellar, lamellar and rostral setae almost similar in length, exobothridial setae minute; sensilli setiform covered with 6 rather long spines. "Notogaster" with seven pairs of fine setae, setae c2 slightly remote more from anterior border than setae c 1 and c 3. Ventral plate with 4 pairs of setae; plate Q with one pair of setae; plate P with 2 pairs of setae; genital plates with 4 pairs of setae; anal plates without setae; adanal plates with 2 pairs of setae.

Remark — This deutonymph has, as the deutonymph of Mesoplophora (Parplophora) pulchra Sellnick (1928) (Grandjean 1933) genital plate with 4 setae and anal plates without setae.

Tritonymph — Body almost transparent. Prodorsum with fine interlamellar, lamellar and rostral setae almost similar in length, exobothridial setae minute; sensilli setiform covered with seven rather long spines. "Notogaster" with 8 pairs of fine setae, setae c 2 remote distinctly more from anterior border than setae c 1 and c 3. Ventral plate with 5 pairs of setae; plate Q with one pair of setae; plate P with 2 pair sof setae; genital plates with 6 pairs of setae; anal plates with 2 pairs and also adanal plates with 2 pairs of setae.

Remark — This tritonymph has, as the tritonymph of Mesoplophora (P.) pulchra the same number (8) of "notogastral" setae but more all ventral setae (7 pairs in M. (M.) pulchra) and less anal and adanal setae (each 3 pairs in M. (P.) pulchra) (Grandjean 1933).

Adult — Size and all characters as in redescription by Mahunka (1985). Colour yellowish. Prodorsum with lateral carinae distinct; sensilli setiform covered with 12-15 thin spines; interlamellar, lamellar and rostral setae covered with small spines, in>le>ro; exobothridial setae minute, shorter than diameter of bothridia. "Notogaster" with 8 pairs of short setae covered with thin spines; setae of row c thinner than setae of rows d and e; setae c 2 remote from anterior border more than setae c 1 and c 3. Ventral region with 9 pairs of setae covered with thin spines of unequal length, except minute setae h 2; 7 pairs of genital setae with formula: 6+1; 2 pairs of anal setae covered with small spines.

Localities in Comoros: Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, central and eastern parts.

Mesoplophora (Mesoplophora) invisistata Niedbala, 1983

(Figure 6)

Mesoplophora (Mesoplophora) invisistata: Niedbala 2001

Figure 6. Mesoplophora (Mesoplophora) invisistata Niedbala, 1983 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – sensillus; C – prodorsum, lateral view; D – opisthosoma, lateral view; E – seta e 2; F – posterior part of ventral side.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 267, width 183, height 126; "Notogaster": length 364, width 303, height 222.

Species of medium size; colour yellow. Prodorsum with pointed rostrum; lateral carinae present; sensilli (ss) long with 8 thin spines; other setae smooth, interlamellar (in) setae longer than lamellar (le) and rostral (ro) setae; exobothridial (ex) setae equal to diameter of bothridia. "Notogaster" with 8 pairs of strong, rough setae, c 1-3 remote from anterior margin, setae e 1 and e 2 thicker than other setae. Ventral region with 9 pairs of ventral setae unequal in length; 7 pairs of genital setae with formula: 5+2.

Species new for MAG.

Distribution — Pantropical, Oriental and Afrotropical Regions.

Mesoplophora (Mesoplophora) similis Mahunka, 2011

(Figure 7)

Figure 7. Mesoplophora (Mesoplophora) similis Mahunka, 2011. A-C (after Mahunka 2011); D, E (paratype): A – dorsal view of body; B – lateral view of body; C – ventral view of body; D – lateral view of body; E – ventral view of body.

Diagnosis — Measurements of one paratype: prodorsum: length 228, width 162, height 96, setae: sensillus 106, interlamellar 86, lamellar 94, rostral 81, exobothridial 5; "notogaster": length 309, width 243, height 172 (height of opisthosoma 245), setae: c1 61, c2 78, c3 83, d1 48, e1 56; genital plate 68x43, anal plate 76x40, distance between genital and anal plates 20. Measurements after Mahunka (2011): length of prodorsum 216-237; "Notogaster": length 208-310, height 216-227. Small-sized species; colour light yellow. Prodorsum with indistinct lateral carinae; sensilli long, setiform with 12-14 small cilia; other setae smooth, fine, attenuate, rather long, except exobothridial minute setae, exobothridial setae about 1/3 of diameter of bothridia; in>le>ro>ex. Anterior "notogastral" setae longer than posterior setae, attenuate; c 1 <c 1-d1 ; setae c 1-3 remote from anterior margin, setae c 2 and c 3 more than setae c 1; setae e 1 and e 2 stronger and thicker than others; all setae smooth. Ventral side; one pair of small setae h anteriorly and laterally of genital plates and 9 pairs of different length of ventral setae present; genital plates with 7 pairs of setae with formula: 6: 1; between them 2 two anterior pairs longer than others; anal plates with 2 pairs of setae, anterior shorter than posterior.

Remark — This species differs from M. (M.) africana by the presence of smooth setae of body (versus ciliate setae). Furthermore the setae e1 and e2 are stronger and thicker than other setae (versus setae d1 , e1 and e2 thicker than others).

Locality in Madagascar (eastern part): Mahunka 2011.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Mesoplophora (Parplophora) Berlese, 1904

Three or four pairs of anal setae present

Distribution. Semicosmopolitan.

Mesoplophora (Parplophora) leviseta Hammer, 1979

(Figure 8)

Mesoplophora leviseta Hammer 1979

Mesoplophora gibba Mahunka 1988 syn. by Niedbala 2001

Figure 8. Mesoplophora (Parplophora) leviseta Hammer, 1979 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – lateral view of opisthosoma; D – ventral side of opisthosoma.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 176, width 130, height 78, "notogaster": length 242, height 141.

Small-sized species; colour light yellow. Prodorsum with pointed rostrum; lateral carinae absent; sensilli long, needleform, without head, tapering covered with 23 small cilia; other setae long, smooth, rostral and lamellar setae longer and thicker than interlamellar and exobothridial setae, ss>le>ro>ex>in. "Notogaster" with 8 pairs of long and rather thick, smooth setae, of nearly the same length, except setae c 3 much shorter and slightly thinner; setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior border, setae c 3 located very close to this border. Ventral region; 8 pairs of thin ventral setae, except one pair long and thick; 7 pairs of genital setae with formula: 5+2, all setiform and smooth; anal plates with three pairs of thin and rather long, smooth setae.

Localities in Seychelles: Mahunka 1988a, Niedbala 2001, 2010, Niedbala & Starý 2015c.

Distribution — Pantropical.

Mesoplophora (Parplophora) madegassica Mahunka, 2009

(Figure 9)

Figure 9. Mesoplophora (Parplophora) madegassica Mahunka, 2009 (after Mahunka 2009): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – lateral view of body; C – genital plates; D – ventral region.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype: length of prodorsum 196 – 216, height of prodorsum 148 – 152; length of "notogaster" 270 – 286, height of "notogaster" 182 – 197. Small-sized species; colour light yellow. Prodorsum with rostral apex sharply pointed; lateral carinae absent; sensilli long, head small, lanceolate, with irregular velum and some small cilia; other setae of different lengths and sizes, rostral and lamellar setae much thicker than interlamellar and exobothridial setae, well ciliate, located near each other; interlamellar setae very thin, filiform, smooth, exobothridial setae also smooth and filiform, the latter shortest of all, but longer than the diameter of bothridium. "Notogaster" with 8 pairs of long setae, covered with small cilia or spines, nearly equal in length, except smooth setae c 3 much shorter and slightly thinner; setae c 1 and c 2 arising far from notogastral border, setae c 3 located very close to this border. Ventral region; 9 pairs of thin ventral setae of different lengths, all slightly ciliate, lateral setae longest of all; genital plates with 7 (5+2) pairs of simple setae, all setiform and smooth; anal plates with three pairs of thinner but longer setae, finely roughened.

Remark — This species is similar to Palaearctic M. (P.) pulchra Sellnick, 1928 in the shape of sensilli but is distinguishable by the location of lamellar setae near rostral setae (versus ro remote from le), longer notogastral setae setae; c 3 shorter and thinner and the presence of 9 pairs of ventral setae (versus 10 pairs).

Locality in Madagascar (northern part): Mahunka 2009b.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Euptyctima Grandjean, 1967

(Euphthiracaroidea and Phthiracaroidea)

Neither posterior notogastral furrows nor a brachypylic ventral plate displaying separated genital and anal plates. Genital and anal plates joined, large and wide or narrow. Larvae and nymps not ptychoid.

This group belong the supercohort Mixonomata Grandjean, 1969.

Euphthiracaroidea Jacot, 1930

Body considerably compressed laterally, genitoaggenital and anoadanal regions narrow, V-shaped.

Oribotritiidae Balogh, 1943

Cuticular surface of body finely punctate or porose. Bothridia without tracheoles or brachytracheae; ventral region divided by genitoaggenital and/or anoadanal scissures, or fusion of genital and aggenital as well anal and adanal plates only partial; interlocking triangle absent; transversal cleft (trv) rarely absent.

Oribotritia Jacot, 1924

Prodorsum without median crista and with one or two pairs of lateral carinae; bothridial scales situated dorsal to bothridia; posterior median apodeme absent; sensilli setiform; interlamellar and rostral setae in median position, lamellar setae situated near bothridia. "Notogaster" with 14 pairs of setae, setae ps 1 dorsal to setae ps 2-3; vestigial setae f 1 anteriorly of setae h 1; one pair of lateral opisthonotal gland openings (gla) and 5 pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip ips, ih present. Ventral region; genitoaggenital and anoadanal scissures well developed, oblique anogenital cleft visible; infracapitulum of stenarthric type; setae h of mentum usually longer than distance between them; normal formula of epimera: 3-0-2-2; genital plates with narrowed, free extension anteriorly; palps 5-segmented with setal formula: 0-(2-4)-0-(2-3)-9 and one solenidion on tarsi. Legs trochanters I and II with one pair of setae, trochanters III and IV with three pairs of setae; femora I with anterodorsal hooked spine; neotrichy on tarsi I and II; solenidia present on genua IV; setae d on tibiae IV reduced and coupled with solenidion; tarsi heterotridactylous.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan.

Oribotritia breviseta Niedbala et Starý, 2015

(Figure 10)

Figure 10. Oribotritia breviseta Niedbala et Starý, 2014 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – lateral view of opisthosoma; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – rigt side of ventral plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 429, height 116; "Notogaster": length 818, height 545.

Large-sized species; body colour light to dark brown. Prodorsum with weak median crista and two pairs of parallel, distinct lateral carinae, sensilli short, needle-like and smooth; interlamellar setae the shortest, bent, lamellar setae needle-like, smooth, the longest, rostral setae erect, rough; ss>le>ro>in; exobothridial setae vestigial. Notogastral setae very short (c 1/c 1-d 1=0.2), all needle-like except filiform setae c 3 and ps 3; oblique arrangement of setae c 1-3 very strange, setae c 1 situated very far from anterior margin of "Notogaster", setae c 2 in medium distance and setae c 3 in short distance from notogastral margin. Ventral region; setae h of mentum considerably longer than distance between them; anogenital cleft trv rather short; 9 pairs of genital and 2 pairs of short aggenital setae present; anal plate with one pair of setae and 3 pairs of adanal setae present; anal setae situated at level and anterior of setae ad 3 (this part of original description is incorrect); distance between ad 1 and ad 2 setae considerably longer than between ad 2 and ad 3 setae; lyrifissures iad situated laterally and posteriorly of adanal setae ad 2. Chaetome of legs (without tarsi): I: 1-4-5(2)-5(1), II:1-4-4(1)-3(1), III: 3-2-3(1)-3(1), IV: 3-2-2(1)-3(1).

Localities in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2015d.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Oribotritia mahunkai Niedbala et Starý, 2013

(Figure 11)

Figure 11. Oribotritia mahunkai Niedbala et Starý, 2014 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – sensillus; C – prodorsum, lateral view; D – opisthosoma, lateral view; E – right side of ventral plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 439, height 146; "Notogaster": length 808, height 545.

Large-sized species; colour light to dark brown. Prodorsum with two pairs of lateral carinae, dorsal well marked, ventral weaker, shorter and convergent in proximal part; sensilli rather short, rigid, smooth, slightly dilated medially; interlamellar and rostral setae short, erect, rough; lamellar setae procumbent, filiform; le>in>ro>ss; exobothridial setae vestigial. "Notogaster" with short, rigid setae, except for slightly longer and filiform setae c 3 and ps 3; setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior margin, setae c 3 near the margin. Ventral region; setae h of mentum considerably longer than distance between them; genital plates with 9 pairs of setae, setae g 1-5 smaller and distanced from setae g 6-9; 2 pairs of aggenital setae present, setae ag 1 considerably shorter than setae ag 2; anogenital cleft trv rather long; one pair of minute anal setae and three pairs of longer adanal setae present; distance between setae ad 1 and ad 2 longer than between setae ad 2 and ad 3; lyrifissures iad situated laterally at the level of setae ad 2. Chaetome of legs (without tarsi): I: 1-4-5(2)-5(1), II: 1-4-4(1)-3(1), III: 3-2-3(1)-3(1), IV: 3-2-2(1)-3(1).

Localities in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2013.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Oribotritia paraspinosa Mahunka, 1999

(Figure 12)

Oribotritia paraspinosa Niedbala 2001, 2008a

Figure 12. Oribotritia paraspinosa Mahunka, 1999. A-E. (specimen from Madagascar – Niedbala 2001) F, G. specimen from MAG-274: A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – right side of ventral plates; E – distal part of femur of leg I.; F – anterior part of "Notogaster"; G – genitoaggenital and anterior part of anoadanal plates.

Diagnosis — Measurements of typical material (two paratypes): prodorsum: length 297-320; notogaster: length 555-596, height 426-440. Measurements of one of specimen from Madagascar (Niedbala 2001): prodorsum: length 530, height 202; notogaster: length 1141, height 858 (conspicuously bigger than typical specimens).

Species of medium size; colour dark brown. Prodorsum with short dorsal crista and two pairs of strong lateral carinae; sensilli short, pointed distally; other setae rigid, interlamellar and rostral erect, rough, lamellar smooth, procumbent; le>in>ro; exobothridial setae vestigial. "Notogaster" with short, rigid, rough setae; setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior border, setae c 3 rather smaller, located near border but in specimen from MAG-274 (similar in length to paratypes) setae c 3 is longer. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; 9 pairs of genital setae with formula 4: 5; 2 pairs of aggenital setae present but in specimen from MAG-274 exist 3 pairs of aggenital setae; 1 pair of anal and 3 pairs of adanal setae present; lyrifissures iad positioned laterally between ad 2 and ad 3 setae. Leg setation (without tarsi): I: 14-5(2)-5(1), II: 14-4(1)-5(1), III: 3-2-3(1)-3(1), IV: 3-2-2(1)-3(1); femora with distinct distal crista.

Localities in Madagascar (central and eastern parts) and Comoros: Mahunka 1999, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, restricted only to eastern islands.

Oribotritia perpusilla Niedbala et Starý, 2016

(Figure 13)

Figure 13. Oribotritia perpusilla Niedbala et Starý, 2016 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – right side of ventral plates; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 255, width 150, height 94; notogaster: length 429, width 152, height 247.

Species medium-sized; colour pale yellow. Prodorsum with simple distinct, long lateral carinae; sensilli long, bent in proximal part, smooth; other setae short, interlamellar and rostral setae erect, rough, lamellar setae procumbent, smooth, exobothridial setae vestigial. Notogastral setae short (c1 /c1 -d1 =0.4), all strong, rough, except filiform setae c 3 and ps 3; setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior margin, setae c 3 near the margin. Ventral region; setae h of mentum shorter than distance between them; anogenital cleft trv long; nine pairs of genital and two pairs of equal aggenital setae present, setae g 1-5 longer than setae g 6-9; anal plate without setae and three pairs of adanal setae present, distance between setae ad 1 and ad 2 slightly longer than between ad 2 and ad 3; lyrifissures iad situated laterally between setae ad 2 and ad 3. Chaetome of legs (without tarsi): I: 1-3-5(2)-5(1), II: 1-4-3(1)-3(1), III: 3-2-3(1)-3(1), IV: 3-2-2(1)-3(1).

Locality in Madagascar (central-eastern part): Niedbala & Starý 2016b

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Oribotritia spinosa (Mahunka, 1988)

(Figure 14)

Philotritia spinosa Mahunka 1988

Oribotritia spinosa: Niedbala 1998a, Niedbala 2008a

Figure 14. Oribotritia spinosa (Mahunka,1988) (paratype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – anterior half of ventral region.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype: prodorsum: length 318, width 232, height 106, setae: ss 35, in 76, le 81, ro 66; "Notogaster": length 540, width 399, height 409, setae: c 1 78, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.75, h 1 and ps 1 68; genital and aggenital plates 131x71, ag 2 48, ag 1 28; anal and adanal plates 268x61.

Species of medium size; colour light brown. Prodorsum with single lateral carinae but so strong that looking as double; sensilIi relatively short, strong, distally acute but not attenuate; interlamellar and rostral setae erect or semierect, strong; in>le>ro>ss; exobothridial setae vestigial. Notogastral setae needle-like, fairly strong except setae c 3 and ps 3 fine and thin; setae c3 located near anterior margin, setae c 1 and c 2 remote from margin. Ventral region; 9 pairs of genital and 2 pairs of aggenital setae present (setae ag 2 longer than ag 1); anal plates generally without setae (with the exception of one pair of anal setae observed in two specimens from Madagascar); adanal plate each with 3 setae; lyrifissures iad slightly posteriad of ad 2 setae; oblique cleft trv shorter than distance between setae g 8-g 9. Palps five segmented (suture between second and third segment is incomplete) with setation: 0-2-0-2-9(1).

Localities in Madagascar (eastern part), Mauritius and Reunion: Mahunka 1988a, 1999, Niedbala 1998a.

Distribution — Afrotropical, eastern islands.

Oribotritia striata Mahunka, 2009

(Figure 15)

Figure 15. Oribotritia striata Mahunka, 2009; A-F (specimen from MAG-13); G (specimen from MAG-030); H (specimen from MAG-031): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – left side of ventral plates; F – trochanter and femur of leg I; G – left genital and aggenital plates; H – left genital and aggenital plates.

Diagnosis — Measurements of specimen from sample MAG-013: prodorsum: length 364, width 293, height 121, setae: sensilli 40, interlamellar 63, lamellar 101, rostral 58; "Notogaster": length 778, width 566, height 498, setae: c1 78, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.4, c 2 68, c 3 86, p 1 61, ps 3 68; genital and aggenital plates 146x66, anal and adanal plates 414x76.

Large-sized species; colour light to dark brown; integument densely punctuate and partly covered with longitudinal striation. Prodorsum with two pairs of lateral carinae but ventral pair is weaker than dorsal; sensilli setiform, short, slightly dilated medially, roughened; interlamellar and rostral erect, rigid, spiniform shorter than thin, filiform, procumbent lamellar setae; le>in>ro>ss; exobothridial setae vestigial. Notogastral setae short (c 1<1/2c 1-d 1), rigid and stout (except thin and filiform setae c 3 and ps 3); setae of row c remote from anterior margin, setae c 1 and c 2 more remote than setae c 3. Ventral region; setae h of mentum considerably longer than distance between them; 9 pairs of genital setae present; setae g 1-5 remote from setae g 6; distance between setae g 7 and g 8 longer than between setae g 6-7 and g 8-9; 3 pairs of aggenital setae present, distance between ag 2-3 longer than between ag 1-2; (I found one specimen from MAG-030 with 4 aggenital setae on left plate and from MAG-031 with 2 vestigial setae in the place of ag 1); anogenital cleft trv rather short; anal plates with one pair of setae, adanal plates with 3 pairs of setae, distance between ad 1-2 longer than between ad 2-3; lyrifissures iad situated laterally between ad 2 and ad 3. Formula of legs setae and solenidia (without tarsi): I: 1-4-5(2)-5(1), II:1-4-4(1)-3(1), III: 3-2-3(1)-4(1), IV: 3-2-2(1)-3(1).

Locality in Madagascar (eastern part): Mahunka 2009a.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Oribotritia succincta Niedbala, 1998

(Figure 16)

Figure 16. Oribotritia succincta Niedbala, 1998 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – right side of ventral region; E – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 494, width 380, height 146; notogaster: length 920, width 626, height 570. Large-sized species; colour dark brown. Prodorsum with long and thick lateral carinae; sensilli smooth, attenuate, tapering gradually; other setae relatively short, smooth, exobothridial setae relatively long; ss>in>ro>ex>le. Notogaster with minute (c 2, c 3, cp, d 2, h 3) or vestigial setae, only setae ps2 and ps3 longer; setae c 1-3 remote from anterior border. Ventral region; setae h of subcapitular mentum distinctly longer than distance between them; epimeral region and palps typical of genus, genital plate each with 9 setae equally spread; aggenital plate each with 2 very long setae; oblique cleft between genito-aggenital and anoadanal plates longer than distance between genital and aggenital setae; 3 pairs of anal and 3 pairs of adanal setae far from one another. Chaetome of legs (without tarsi): I: 1-4-5(2)-5(1), II: 1-4-4(1)-4(1), III: 3-2-2(1)-4(1), IV: 3-2-2-3(1).

Localities in Madagascar (eastern part): Niedbala 1998a.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Oribotritia tiwi Mahunka, 1987

(Figure 17)

Oribotritia tiwi: Niedbala 1998a, 2001

Figure 17. Oribotritia tiwi Mahunka, 1987 (paratype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype: prodorsum length 353, width 288, height 156, setae: ss 83, in and le 61, ro 58; notogaster: length 707, width and height 485, c 1 81, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.4), h 1 78, ps 1 76, c 1/c 1-d 1 0,48; genital and aggenital plates 156x86, anal and adanal plates 338x61. Measurements of specimens from Aldabra: Prodorsum length 328, width 247, height 108, notogaster: length 609, width 469, height 482. Rather large-sized species; colour brown. Prodorsum with strong lateral carinae; sensilli short, rigid, rough; interlamellar and rostral setae erect, rough, exobothridial setae vestigial; ss>in=le>ro. Notogastral setae short and rigid. Setae c 3 longer than others; setae c 1-3 remote from anterior border. Ventral region; 9 pairs of genital setae present, 5 pairs in progenital region longer than posterior setae; 3 pairs of aggenital setae present; distance between setae ag 1 and ag 2 shorter than between ag 2 and ag 3; oblique cleft trv shorter than the distance between ag 2-ag 3 but longer than that between ag 1-ag 2; one pair of anal and 3 pairs of adanal setae present. Lyrifissures iad situated laterally between setae ad 2 and ad 3; palps five segmented with formulae: 0-2-0-2-9(1). Leg setation of setae and solenidia (without tarsi): I: 1-3-5(2)-5(1), II: 1-3-4(1)-4(1), III: 3-2-3(1)-3(1), IV: 3-1-2(1)-3(1).

Localities in Madagascar (eastern part) and Comoros: Niedbala 1998a, 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, eastern part.

Oribotritia virgulata Niedbala, 2001

(Figure 18)

Oribotritia virgulata: Niedbala 2008a

Figure 18. Oribotritia virgulata Niedbala, 2001 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – anterior part of "Notogaster", dorsal view; E – left side of ventral region.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 596, width 454, height 454; notogaster: length 1090, width and height 707.

Large-sized species; colour yellow. Prodorsum with two pairs of long lateral carinae; irregular fields in posterior part present; sensilli rigid, rough, pointed distally; other setae procumbent, rather short, exobothridial setae very long; in>ss>ex>le>ro. Notogaster with distinct striation in anterior and dorsal part; setae feeble, flexible, very short, setae of row c remote from anterior border. Ventral region; setae h of mentum considerably longer than distance between them; 8 pairs of genital and 2 pairs of aggenital setae present, 3 pairs of genital setae in progenital position, aggenital setae similar in length; anal plates each with 3 minute setae; adanal plate each with 3 longer setae; lyrifissures iad located laterally of ad 3 setae. Chaetome of legs (without tarsi): I: 1-4-5(2)-5(1), II: 1-4-4(1)-5(1), III: 3-2-3(1)-3(1), IV: 3-2-2(1)-3(1).

Locality in Madagascar (eastern part): Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Indotritia Jacot, 1929

One or two pairs of lateral carinae present; bothridial squamae situated above bothridia; sensilli usually setiform, smooth; lamellar setae arising posteriorly, rostral setae in normal position; posterior median apodeme absent. Notogaster with 14 pairs of setae; a terminal sinus present; vestigial setae f 1 situated anterior to h 1 setae; openings of opisthonotal glands (gla) and lyrifissures: ia, im, ip, ips, ih present. Ventral region; setae h of infracapitular mentum usually very long, considerably longer than distance between them; palps 5-segmented, but its genua and femora not hinged, palpal setal formula: 0-2-0-2-9+1; genitoaggenital scissure incomplete, these plates are fused anteriorly; internal transversal apodeme present; anogenital cleft present, but mostly short, genital plates with an extension anteriorly. Legs heterotridactylous, with normal chaetome; solenidia on tarsi II with coupled setae; solenidia on genua IV present; setae d on tibiae IV reduced and coupled with the solenidia.

Distribution. Pantropical, relatively uncommon in northern hemisphere: Nearctic and Palaearctic Regions.

Indotritia (lndotritia) javensis (Sellnick, 1923)

(Figure 19)

Figure 19. Indotritia javensis (Sellnick, 1923) (specimen from MAG-131): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – right side of ventral plates.

Diagnosis — Measurements of specimen from MAG-131: prodorsum: length 384, width 268, height 141, setae: ss 159, in 106, le 68, ro 63; notogaster: length 656, width 465, height 525, setae: c 1 126, c 3 53; genital and aggenital plates 164x83, anal and adanal plates 328x76.

Rather large-sized species; colour brown. Prodorsum with 2 pairs of robust, divergent lateral carinae; sensilli setiform, smooth; rostral and interlamellar setae rigid, setiform, erect, interlamellar setae covered with small spines, rostral setae rough; lamellar setae procumbent, thin; exobothridial setae vestigial. "Notogaster" with short (c 1<c 1-d 1), setiform setae covered with small spines, setae c 3 and ps 3 thinner than others, setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior margin, setae c 3 near the border. Ventral region; setae h of mentum considerably longer than distance between them; epimeral formula: 3-0-2-2; scissure between genital and aggenital plates sometimes long, reaching setae g 6; 9 pairs of genital, 2 pairs of aggenital setae; one pair of anal and 3 pairs of adanal setae; lyrifissures iad situated between setae ad2 and ad3. Leg chaetome: I: 1-4-5(2)-5(1)-22(3)-3, II: 1-4-4(1)-3(1)-19(2)-3, III: 3-2-3(1)-3(1)-14-3, IV: 3-2-2(1)-3(1)-11-3, femora I with distinct spines in dorsodistal end, setae u' on tarsi IV in shape of thick spines.

Remark — This species is similar to I. paulyi Niedbala, 1988 but has vestigial exobothridial setae, shorter notogastral setae, especially interlamellar and rostral setae of prodorsum and adanal setae ad 1 and ad 2.

Species new for Afrotropical Region.

Distribution — Pantropical species introduced to southern and eastern parts of Palaearctic.

lndotritia (lndotritia) krakatauensis (Sellnick, 1923)

(Figure 20)

Indotritia heterotricha Mahunka 1984 syn. by Niedbala 1998a

Indotritia septentrionalis Mahunka 1987 syn. by Niedbala 1998a

Indotritia tropica Starý 1993 syn. by Niedbala 1998a

lndotritia (lndotritia) krakatauensis: Niedbala 1998a, 2001, Niedbala & Ermilov 2014

Figure 20. lndotritia (lndotritia) krakatauensis (Sellnick, 1923); A (specimen from Tanzania – Niedbala 2016); B-E (specimen from Papua): A – prodorsum, lateral view; B – prodorsum, dorsal view, C – prodorsum, lateral view; D – opisthosoma, lateral view; E – ventral region.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype of Indotritia heterotricha Mahunka, 1984 (Niedbala 1998a): prodorsum: length 431, height 158; notogaster: length 846, height 616.

Large-sized species; body colour brown. Prodorsum with double lateral carinae; sensilli long, narrow and smooth; other setae of prodorsum relatively short, fine; interlamellar setae short, bent posteriorly; exobothridial setae vestigial. Gastronotic setae also relatively short (c 1/c 1-d 1 = 0,42) but covered with small spines. Setal formula of palps: 0-2-0-2-9(1); cleft trv shorter than the distanee between setae g 8 and g 9; 9 pairs of genital; 2 pairs of aggenital setae (rarely 3 or even 4 pairs); 2 pairs of anal and 2 pairs of adanal setae, lyrifissures iad little dorsad of setae ad2. Chaetome of legs (without tarsi I and II): I: 1-3-5(2)-5(1), II: 1-4-4(1)-3(1), III: 3-2-3(1)-3(1)-14, IV: 3-2-2(1)-3(1)-11.

Species known from Mauritius, Seychelles, Comoros and Reunion: Niedbala 1998a, 2008a, 2001, 2010, Niedbala & Starý 2015c.

Distribution — Pantropical.

Indotritia (Indotritia) paulyi Niedbala, 1998

(Figure 21)

Indotritia (Indotritia) paulyi: Niedbala 2001

Figure 21. Indotritia (Indotritia) paulyi Niedbala, 1998 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – right side of ventral plates; E – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurement of the holotype: prodorsum: length 303, width 232, height 86; notogaster: length 515, width 449, height 404.

Species of medium size; colour brown. Prodorsum with long, double lateral carinae; sensilli long, filiform, covered sparsely with spines; interlamellar and rostral setae erect, long, barbed sparsely; lamellar setae shorter, procumbent, smooth, exobothridial setae minute; in>ro>le>ex. Notogaster with relatively long (c 1/c 1-d 1=0,9) setae barbed sparsely (except smooth setae c 3), setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior margin, seta c 3 close to margin. Ventral region; setae h of mentum distinctly longer than distance between them; 9 pairs of genital, 2 pairs of aggenital setae present; cleft trv shorter than distance between setae g 8-g 9; anal plates each with one seta; adanal plates each with 3 setae, setae ad 1 and ad 2 longer than setae ad 3; distance between ad 1 and ad 2 longer than ad 2-ad 3; lyrifissures iad situated laterally and anteriorly of ad 2 setae. Chaetome of leg (without tarsi): I: 1-4-5(2)-5(1), II: 1-4-4(1)-3(1), III: 3-2-3(1)-3(1), IV: 3-2-2(1)-3(1); unguinal seta on tarsi IV spiniform.

Localities in Madagascar (central and eastern parts): Mahunka 1999, Niedbala 1998a, 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Indotritia (Indotritia) tripartita Niedbala, 1998

(Figure 22)

Indotritia (Indotritia) tripartita Niedbala 2001

Figure 22. Indotritia tripartita Niedbala, 1998. A-E (holotype); F-G (specimen from MAG-008): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – right side of ventral plates; E – trochanter and femur of leg I; F – left side of ventral plates; G – right side of ventral plates.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 475, width 349, height 177; notogaster: length 911, width 598, height 644.

Large-sized species; colour brown. Prodorsum with well developed dorsal crista and distinct lateral carinae with three branches; sensilli short, baciliform, smooth, obtuse distally; other setae short (except vestigial exobothridial), interlamellar and rostral setae erect, lamellar setae procumbent; le>ss>in>ro. Notogaster with short (c 1/c 1-d 1=0.5), baciliform, rigid setae, only setae c 3 and ps 3 fine; setae c 3 situated near anterior margin, setae c 1 and c 2 considerably remote from margin. Ventral region; setae h of mentum considerably longer than their distance; palps five segmented with formula: 0-2-0-2-9(1); genitoaggenital plates with 9 pairs of minute setae, 5 pairs in progenital position; cleft trv longer than distance between setae g 8 and g 9; one pair of anal and 3 pairs of adanal setae present, distance between setae ad 1 and ad 2 greater than between setae ad 2 and ad 3. Leg setation (without tarsi): I: 1-4-5(2)-5(1), II: 1-4-4(1)-3(1), III: 3-2-3(1)-3(1), IV: 3-2-2(1)-3(1); anteriodorsal short spine on femora I present.

Remark — One specimen from MAG-008 has 4 setae ag on left aggenital plate and three ag setae on right aggenital plate instead two pairs of aggenital setae. The same specimen has four adanal setae on left adanal plate instead three pairs of adanal setae (Fig 22F, G).

Localities in Comoros: Niedbala 1998a, 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Comoros, endemic.

Euphthiracaridae Jacot, 1930

Bothridia with brachytracheae or tracheoles; genitoaggenital and anoadanal regions fused into two holoventral plates; anogenital cleft rarely present; one or two interlocking triangles present; palps 3-segmented.

Euphthiracarus Ewing, 1917

Prodorsum without median crista; one or two pairs of lateral carinae present; bothridial scales situated below bothridia; posterior median apodeme present; lamellar setae anteriorly of interlamellar setae. Notogaster (with 14 pairs of setae) covered with slightly porose cuticle or strong sculpture and with a terminal fissure; one pair of openings of lateral opisthonotal glands (gla) and five pairs of lyrifissures: ia, im, ip, ips, ih present. Ventral region; palps with formula: 2-2-8(1); both anterior and posterior interlocking triangles present; anogenital cleft present or absent; three pairs of anal and three pairs of adanal setae present, lyrifissures iad located between ad 2 and an 3. Legs; trochanters III and IV with two setae, genua IV with solenidia, famuli situated far from the solenidia, solenidia ω1 and ω2 on tarsi II without coupled setae, seta d on tarsi IV comparatively long and not coupled with the solenidion; tarsi mono- or tridactylous.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan.

Euphthiracarus (Euphthiracarus) Ewing, 1917

Genito-anal cleft absent. Rostral setae situated far anteriorly of lamellar setae. Surface of body punctuated or striated.

Euphthiracarus (Euphthiracarus) duplex Niedbala et Starý, 2014 (Figure 23)

Figure 23. Euphthiracarus (E.) duplex Niedbala et Starý, 2014 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – sensillus; C – prodorsum, lateral view; D – opisthosoma, lateral view; E – mentum of subcapitulum; F – left side of ventral plates; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 338, width 222, height 121; notogaster: length 636, width 424, height 444.

Medium-sized species; colour brown; cuticle finely punctate. Prodorsum with two pairs of long, rigid lateral carinae; sensilli long, baciliform, smooth, and only covered with small spines at top; other setae (except minute exobothridial) rather short, similar in length, erect; lamellar and rostral rough, interlamellar fine, smooth; in-in>le-le>ro-ro. Notogaster with setae relatively short (c 1 <c 1-d 1), setae c 1-3 remote from anterior margin, setae c 1 more than setae c 2 and c 3. Ventral region; setae h of mentum considerably shorter than distance between them; 9 pairs of genital setae, 4 of them on progenital position; 2 pairs of aggenital setae, ag 2>ag 1; anal setae an 1 and an 2 smooth, attenuate longer than other rough setae of anoadanal plates. Chaetome of legs (without tarsi): I: 1-3-5(2)-5(1), II: 1-4-3(1)-5(1), III: 2-2-2(1)-2(1), IV: 2-1-1(1)-2(1); all tarsi heterotridactylous.

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2014a.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Euphthiracarus (Euphthiracarus) incredibilis (Mahunka, 1999)

(Figure 24)

Niedbalaia incredibilis Mahunka, 1999

Euphthiracarus incredibilis: Niedbala 2001

Figure 24. Euphthiracarus (E.) incredibilis (Mahunka, 1999); A-C (holotype); D (after Mahunka 1999): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – ventral region.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 288, height 126, notogaster: length 545, height 364.

Small-sized species; colour light brown; surface covered with dense striation. Prodorsum with three dorsal cristae and two pairs of lateral carinae; sensilli long, straight, thick, rather obtuse distally sparsely covered with small spines; interlamellar and lamellar setae erect, rigid, covered with small spines, rostral setae the thickest, procumbent, rough. Notogaster with rigid setae, short (c 1<c 1-d 1) pointed distaly and covered with small spines, setae of row c remote from anterior border, setae c1 more than setae c2 , setae c3 less than setae c2 ; c1 >c2 >c3 . Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; genital plates with one pair of longitudinal keels; 9 pairs of genital setae with formula 4+3: 2, setae g6-9 long and flagellate, longer than setae g l-5, ratio 3:4; aggenital setae unequal in length, ratio ag 2/ag l = 3.8. Chaetome of legs (without tarsi): I: l-3-5(2)-5(1), II: l-3-3(1)-4(1), III: 2-2-2(1)-2(1), IV: 2-1-1 (1)-2(1); all tarsi monodactylous.

Locality in Madagascar (central part): Mahunka 1999, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Euphthiracarus (Euphthiracarus) netron Niedbala et Starý, 2014 (Figure 25)

Figure 25. Euphthiracarus (E.) netron Niedbala et Starý, 2014 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – ventral region.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 248, width 172, height 106; notogaster: length 444, width 308, height 313.

Medium-sized species; colour yellow; surface of body densely punctate. Prodorsum with one pair lateral carinae; sensilli long with very thin pedicel and fusiform, rough head; dorsal setae fine, long, erect, flagelliform; exobothridial setae minute; in>le>ro>ex; distance between interlamellar and lamellar setae greater than that between lamellar and rostral setae; mutual distance ro-ro greater than le-le. Notogaster with setae of medium length (c 1 <c 1 -d 1), fine, flagellate, seta c 1 and ps 3 the longest, setae c 3 and h 2 the shortest; setae c 1-3 remote from anterior margin, setae c 1 more, setae c 3 less. Ventral region; setae h of mentum shorter than distance between them; 9 pairs of genital setae with formula 7: 2; two pairs of longer aggenital setae, ag 2=ag 1; anal setae an 1 and an 2 slender and attenuate, an 1 longer than an 2, setae ad 1 and ad 2 longer than ad 3. Formulae of legs setae and solenidia (without tarsi): I: 1-3-5(2)-5(1), II: 1-3-3(1)-5(1), III: 2-2-2(1)-2(1), IV: 2-1-1(1)-2(1); all tarsi monodactylous.

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2014a.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Euphthiracarus (Euphthiracarus) paranetron Niedbala et Starý, 2016 (Figure 26)

Figure 26. Euphthiracarus paranetron Niedbala et Starý, 2016 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – ventral side.

Diagnosis. — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 218, width 149, height 94; notogaster: length 414, width 262, height 257.

Medium-sized species. Colour yellow; surface of body reticulate. Prodorsum with two pairs of parallel lateral carinae; sensilli rather long, with elongated, rough spindle; dorsal setae long, erect, attenuate; in=ro>le>ss>ex. Notogaster with relatively short (c 1 <c 1 -d 1), rigid, setae covered sparsely with spines; setae c 1-3 remote from anterior margin, setae c 1 and c 2 more than c 3. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; nine pairs of genital setae with formula 9: 1, 2 pairs of rather long aggenital setae; anal setae an 1 and an 2 slender and more attenuate than other, setae ad 1 and ad 2 longest. Chaetome of legs (without tarsi): I: 1-3-5(2)-5(1), II: 1-3-2(1)-4(1), III: 2-2-2(1)-2(1), IV: 2-1-1(1)-2(1); all tarsi monodactylous.

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2016b.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Acrotritia Jacot, 1923

Cuticular surface of body generally finely punctate or porose. Prodorsum without median crista, but with one or two pairs of lateral carinae; bothridial scales situated above the bothridia; posterior median apodeme present; setae in, le and ro in median (paraxial) position. Notogaster with 14 pairs of setae, setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior border more than setae c 3, setae ps 1 situated anterior the ps 2-3 setae; one pair of openings of lateral opisthonotal glands openings (gla); five pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip, ih, ips and two pairs of vestigial setae f present; terminal sinus at the posterior end. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; palps 3-segmented, with normal formula: 2-2-8(1); anogenital cleft absent; one interlocking triangle present; three pairs of anal setae, an 1 and an 2 rigid, smooth, an 3 minute; three pairs of rigid adanal setae covered with small spines in distal half, longer than anal setae an 1 and an 2; lyrifissures iad located between ad 3 and an 3 setae. Legs; trochanters I and II bearing one setae and III and IV with two setae; genua IV without solenidia; setae d on tibiae IV relatively long and not coupled with solenidion; solenidia of tarsi II without coupled setae; tarsi mono-, bi- or heterotridactylous.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan.

Acrotritia ardua (C.L. Koch, 1841)

(Figure 27)

Rhysotritia ardua: Niedbala 1998a,b, 2001

Figure 27. Acrotritia ardua (C.L. Koch, 1841) (specimen from Finland): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – subcapitulum; E – ventral region.

Diagnosis — Prodorsum 261, notogaster 572 (specimen from MAG-280).

Medium-sized species; colour light brown, brown. Prodorsum with one pair of lateral carinae; sensilli with distinctly dilated head covered with spines; dorsal setae rigid, erect, with small spines in distal half, exobothridial setae minute; in>le>ro>ex. Notogastral setae fairly short (c1 <c1 -d1 ) covered with small spines in distal half, setae of row c remote from anterior border, setae c 2 more, setae c 3 less remote; distance between setae ps 2 and ps 3 is considerably bigger than between setae ps 1 and ps 2 (in specimen from Madagascar ps 2-ps 3/ps 1-ps 2 =2.5). Ventral region; 9 pairs of minute genital setae, 2 pairs of aggenital setae, arranged longitudinally, similar in length to genital setae. Chaetome of legs: I: 1-3-5(2)-4(1)-17(3), II: 1-3-3(1)-4(1)-13(2), III: 2-2-2(1)-3(1)-11, IV: 2-1-2-2(1)-10; tarsi of the legs I bidactylous, tarsi II-IV heterotridactylous.

Localities in Madagascar (eastern part) and Comoros: Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan.

Acrotritia divida (Mahunka, 1991)

(Figure 28)

Figure 28. Acrotritia divida (Mahunka, 1991) (specimen from MAG-006): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – subcapitulum; E – right genitoaggenital plate.

Description — Measurements of specimen from MAG-006: prodorsum: length 454, width 217, height 131, setae: ss 73, in 126, le 91, ro 75, ex 23; notogaster: length 586, width 414, height 454, setae: c 1 106, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.8, h 1 113, ps 1 101; length of genitoaggenital plate 202, length of anoadanal plate 278. Specimens from Madagascar are bigger than holotype.

Rather large-sized species; colour light brown. Prodorsum with lateral carinae bifurcate distally; sensilli with dilated head, densely spinose; dorsal setae stout, thick, interlamellarr and lamellar with dense spicules, rostral setae weaker spicules, exobothridial setae minute; in>le>ro>ex; distance between lamellar setae slightly longer than between rostral setae. Notogaster with stout, short (c 1<c 1-d 1), ciliate setae, setae of row c remote from anterior border, setae c 1 more than c 3 and less than c 2; Ventral region; 9 pairs of genital (formula 7: 2) and 2 pairs of minute aggenital setae present; anal and adanal setae attenuate. Chaetome of legs (without tarsi): I: 1-3-5(2)-5(1); II: 1-3-3(1)-4(1); III: 2-2-2(1)-3(1); IV: 2-1-2-2(0)-(1); tarsi monodactylous (in three specimens right tarsus IV and in one specimen left tarsus IV have additional one small claw).

Species new for MAG.

Distribution — Pantropical (eastern part).

Acrotritia granulata (Mahunka, 1999)

(Figure 34D)

Rhysotritia granulata Mahunka 1999

Rhysotritia granulata: Niedbala 2001

I examined once again the paratype in alcohol.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype: prodorsum: length 252, height 106; notogaster: length 505, height 384.

All characters the same as A. vestita. Only irregular, probably mineralization patterns as "the ornamentation by secretion granules partly forming a polygonal reticulation" of surface of body (Mahunka 1999) distinguish A. granulata (Mahunka 1999) from A. vestita.

Locality in Madagascar (central part): Mahunka 1999, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Acrotritia paraardua Niedbala et Starý, 2015

(Figure 29)

Figure 29. Acrotritia paraardua Niedbala et Starý, 2014 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – right genitoaggenital plate.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 260, width 190, height 114; notogaster: length 494, width 338, height 369.

Species of medium size; colour light brown. Prodorsum with single, well-marked, long lateral carinae; sensilli with thin pedicel and clavate head covered with small spines; setae: interlamellar and lamellar similar to notogastral setae, stout, covered with small spines in distal half; rostral setae fairly short, rough; exobothridial setae minute; in>le>ro>ex. Notogaster with moderately long (setae c 1 shorter than distance between setae c 1 and d 1), stout, covered with small spines in distal half; setae c remote from anterior margin, setae c 2 more removed than setae c 1 and c 3. Ventral region; genitogenital plates with 9 pairs of genital setae; all genital setae situated posteriorly of progenital area; 2 aggenitale setae situated slightly obliquely. Leg chaetome (tarsi not examined): I: 1-3-5(2)-5(1), II: 1-4-3(1)-4(1), III: 2-2-2(1)-3(1), IV: 2-1-2(0)-3(1). Tarsi of leg I bidactylous, tarsi II-IV tridactylous, all tarsi heterotridactylous.

Localities in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2015d.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Acrotritia paradikra Niedbala et Starý, 2015

(Figure 30)

Figure 30. Acrotritia paradikra Niedbala et Starý, 2014 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 278, height 101, width 192; notogaster: length 576, height 424, width 394.

Medium-sized species; colour yellow. Prodorsum with two pairs of distinct lateral carinae; inferior is long, placed between bothridium and lateral border of prodorsum, superior is short not parallel, located in anterior part convergent to middle of inferior carina; sensilli fusiform with spinose head; setae interlamellar and lamellar spinose in distal half; rostral setae rough; exobothridial setae minute; in>le>ro>ex; distance between lamellar setae is larger than between rostral setae. Notogastral setae rather short (c 1<c 1-d 1) spinose in distal half; on the left side in holotype vestigial seta f 1 is developed as short, filiform seta. Ventral region; 9 pairs of minute genital, no one in progenital position and 2 pairs of minute aggenital setae present. Leg setation (without tarsi): I: 1-3-5(2)-5(1), II: 1-3-3(1)-4(1), III: 2-2-2(1)-3(1), IV: 2-1-2-2(1); tarsi I bidactylous, tarsi II-IV tridactylous, all tarsi heterodactylous.

Remark — This species is distinguishable from similar A. refracta by the differences in formula of genital setae, chaetome of legs and number of tarsal claws.

Localities in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2015d.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Acrotritia refracta (Niedbala, 1998)

(Figure 31)

Rhysotritia refracta Niedbala, 1998

Figure 31. Acrotritia refracta (Niedbala, 1998) (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – anterior part of "Notogaster"; D – posterior view on "Notogaster" and anoadanal plates; E – right genitoaggenital plate.
Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 278, height 101, width 207; notogaster: length 581, height 429, width 379.

Medium-sized species; colour brown. Prodorsum with two pairs of distinct lateral carinae; inferior is long, placed between bothridium and lateral border of prodorsum, superior short running obliquely from the middle of inferior carinae to antero-ventral margin; sensilli slightly fusiform with spinose head; setae interlamellar, lamellar and rostral erect, spinose in distal half; exobothridial setae minute; in>le>ro>ex; distance between lamellar setae is larger than between rostral setae. Notogastral setae of medium length (c 1<c 1-d 1), spinose in distal half. Ventral region; 9 pairs of minute genital setae with formula 7: 2 and two pair of minute aggenital setae present. Chaetome of legs (without tarsi): I: 1-3-4(2)-5(1), II: 1-4-3(1)-4(1), III: 2-2-2(1)-3(1), IV: 2-1-1-2(1); all tarsi monodactylous.

Species new for Afrotropical Region.

Distribution — Pantropical.

Acrotritia rustica (Niedbala, 1991)

(Figure 32)

Rhysotritia rustica Niedbala, 1991

Rhysotritia rustica: Niedbala 1998a, 2001

Figure 32. Acrotritia rustica (Niedbala, 1991); A-F (holotype); G, H (specimen from MAG-083): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – seta h 1; E – left side of ventral region; F – trochanter and femur of leg I; G – prodorsum, lateral view; H – anterior half of opisthosoma, lateral view.

Diagnosis — Measurements of specimen from MAG-083: prodorsum: length 232, height 96, setae: ss 66, in 106, le 66, ro 58, ex 15; notogaster: length 459, height 328, setae: c 1 73, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.63, h 1 73, ps 1 68. Specimens from Madagascar are bigger than holotype.

Medium-sized species; colour yellow. Prodorsum with one pair of simple, long lateral carinae; sensilli long with slightly broad, oblongly fusiform head tapered with small barbs, interlamellar, lamellar, rostral setae erect, interlamellar and lamellar spinose, rostral rough; exobothridial setae minute; in>le>ro>ex. Notogaster with fairly short (c 1/c 1-d 1=0.65) setae, finely barbed at distal half; vestigial setae f 1 a little dorsad of setae h 1. Ventral region; 9 pairs of genital setae with formula 8: 1 and 2 pairs of aggenital setae present. Chaetome of legs (without tarsi): I: 1-3-5(2)-5(1), II: 1-3-3(1)-4(1) III: 2-2-2(1)-3(1), IV: 2-1-2-2(1); all tarsi monodactylous.

Localities in Madagascar (northern and south central parts): Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Species with unusual distribution; known from western Palaearctic (North Europe, Macaronesia and Holo-Mediterranean areas, disjunctive), Afrotropical Region, central part and South Africa.

Acrotritia spiculifera (Mahunka, 1991)

(Figure 33)

Rhysotritia clavata spiculifera Mahunka 1991

Rhysotritia spiculifera: Niedbala 1998a, 2001

Figure 33. Acrotritia spiculifera (Mahunka, 1991). A, C, D (after Mahunka 1991); B (specimen from Comores); E-F (paratype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum and anterior part of "Notogaster", lateral view; C – lateral view of body; D – ventral plate; E – prodorsum, dorsal view, F – lateral view of body.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype. Prodorsum: length 205, height 83, width 157; setae: ss 56, in 88, le 63, ro 48, ex 8; notogaster: length 414, height and width 252, setae: c 1 45, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.5, h 1 56, ps 1 53; length of genitoaggenital plate 144; length of anoadanal plate 182.

Species of medium size; colour yellow. Prodorsum with simple lateral carinae; sensilli with well-separated, claviform head covered with small spines; other setae, with exception of exobothridial, ciliate; in>le>ro>ex. Notogaster with relatively short setae (c 1<c 1-d 1). Ventral region, 9 pairs of genital and 2 pairs of aggenital setae; anal and adanal setae, except minute an 3, similar in length; tarsi of legs monodactylous.

Remark — This species differs from a very similar A. clavata (Märkel, 1964) only by the presence of 9 pairs of genital setae (versus 6 pairs of genital setae).

Localities in Madagascar (central part), Comoros and Seychelles: Mahunka 1999, Niedbala 1998a, 2001, 2008a.

Distribution — Pantropical.

Acrotritia vestita (Berlese, 1913)

(Figure 34)

Rhysotritia anchistea: Niedbala 1998a

Rhysotritia anchistea Niedbala, 1998 syn. by Niedbala 2000

Rhysotritia bifurcata Niedbala, 1983 syn. by Niedbala 2000

Rhysotritia niedbalai Balogh et Balogh 2002 syn. by Niedbala 2006b

Rhysotritia comteae Mahunka 1983 syn. by Subías 2004

Rhysotritia comteae: Niedbala 2001, Niedbala 2008a

Acrotritia comteae: Niedbala 2008a

Figure 34. Acrotritia vestita (Berlese, 1913). paratype of Rhysotritia comteae Mahunka, 1983 – synonym of A. vestita: A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – paratype of Rhysotritia granulata Mahunka, 1999, anterior fragment of "Notogaster".

Diagnosis — Measurements: length of prodorsum 220-240; length of notogaster: 440-480.

Medium-sized species; colour light brown, brown. Prodorsum with one pair of lateral carinae bifurcated at the distal end; sensilli with distinct head covered with numerous small spines; interlamellar, lamellar and rostral setae rigid, erect covered with small spines in distal half; interlamellar setae longer than rostral and lamellar setae; exobothridial setae minute; in>ss>le>ro>ex; distance between lamellar setae almost the same as distance between rostral setae. Notogaster with setae covered with small spines in distal half. Ventral region; 9 pairs of genital and 2 pairs of aggenital setae present. Chaetome of legs (without tarsi): I: 1-3-4(2)-5(1), II: 1-4-3(1)-4(1), III: 2-2-2(1)-3(1), IV: 2-1-2-2(1); tarsi of legs I bidactylous, tarsi II-IV heterotridactylous.

Localities in Madagascar (central part): Mahunka 1999, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Pantropical species.

Bukitritia Mahunka, 1990

Prodorsum without median crista; one pair of lateral carinae, posterior median apodeme absent; bothridial squamae above bothridia; setae in, le and ro in median position; Notogaster with 14 pairs of setae; setae ps 1 anterior to ps 2-3 setae; terminal fissure present; anterior traces of anoadanal suture present; one interlocking median triangle present; no genital setae in progenital position; palps 3-segmented with formula: 1-2-7(1); legs with strongly reduced chaetotaxy; trochanters III and IV with 2 setae each; genua IV without solenidia and setae; setae d on tibia IV short, coupled with solenidia; solenidia of tarsi II without coupled setae; all tarsi monodactylous.

Bukitritia timah Mahunka, 1990

(Figure 35)

Bukitritia timah: Niedbala 2001

Figure 35. Bukitritia timah Mahunka, 1990 (paratype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – right genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype: prodorsum: length 174, height 71, width 114; setae: ss 38, in 58, le 45, ro 33, ex 8; notogaster: length 283, height 180, width 177, setae: c 1 33, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.5, h 1 40, ps 1 33; genitoaggenital plate 192x35; anoadanal plate 119x28.

Small species; colour yellow; integument punctate. Prodorsum with sensilli rather long, with thin pedicel and distinct, dilated, rounded head covered with small spines; interlamellar, lamellar and rostral setae rigid, erect, in and le covered with small spines in distal half, ro rough; exobothridial setae minute; in>le>ss>ro>ex. Notogaster with setae covered with small spines in distal half; setae c 1 and c 2 more remote from anterior margin than setae c 3. Ventral region; 5 pairs of genital and 2 pairs of aggenital setae present; distance between g 3 and g 4 longer than between other genital setae; aggenital setae situated horizontally; adanal setae longer than anal setae; lyrifissures iad located between an 2 and ad 3 nearer ad 3. Chaetome of legs: I: 1-3-4(2)-4(1)-12(3)-1; II: 1-3-3(1)-4(1)-10(2)-1; III: 2-2-2(1)-3(1)-9-1, IV: 2-1-1-2(1)-9-1.

Locality in Madagascar (central part): Mahunka 1999, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Oriental (Malaysia) and Afrotropical (Madagascar), pantropical

Microtritia Märkel, 1964

Cuticular surface of body finely porose or striated. Prodorsum without median crista, with one pair of lateral carinae; bothridial scales situated above the bothridia; posterior median apodeme present; lamellar and rostral setae in median (paraxial) position; interlamellar setae situated near the bothridia. Notogaster with 14 pairs of setae; setae of row ps situated almost in one line; terminal sinus or terminal fissure at posterior end present; one pair of openings of lateral opisthonotal glands (gla) and five pairs of lyrifissures: ia, im, ip, ips, ih present. Ventral region; palps three-segmented with formula: (1-2)-1-(7-8)(1); genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates completely fused; anogenital cleft present; one median interlocking triangle present. Legs: each trochanter with one seta; genua IV without solenidia; setae d on tibiae IV coupled with solenidion; solenidia ω1 and ω2 without coupled setae; famuli located far from solenidia; all tarsi monodactylous.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan.

Microtritia hauseri Mahunka, 1993

(Figure 36)

Microtritia altissima Mahunka 1994 syn. by Niedbala 1998a

Microtritia hauseri: Niedbala 1998a, 2001

Figure 36. Microtritia hauseri Mahunka, 1993. A-D (paratype); E-I (specimen from MAG-097): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – lateral view of body; C – mentum of subcapitulum; D – left genitoaggenital plate; E – prodorsum, dorsal view; F – prodorsum with anterior part of opisthosoma, lateral view; G – opisthosoma, lateral view; H – mentum of subcapitulum; I – left side of ventral region.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype: prodorsum: length 197, height 76, width 164, setae: ss 71, in 5, le 20, ro 25; notogaster: length 379, height 247, width 232; setae: c 1 43, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.5; h 1 and ps 1 30; length of genitoaggenital plate 101, length of anoadanal plate 164.

Measurements of specimen from sample MAG-097: prodorsum: length 233, height 96, width 177, setae: ss 63, setae: in and ro 28, le 13; notogaster: length 424, height 303, width 278; setae: c 1, h 1 and ps 1 38; c 1/c 1-d 1 = 0.4; genitoaggenital plate 109x58, anoadanal plate 177x51. Specimens from sample MAG-097 are slightly larger than type specimens.

Medium-sized species; colour yellow; integument punctate. Rostrum of prodorsum anteriorly slightly dentate; feeble lateral carinae present; sensilli fusiform, acute, smooth; setae fine, interlamellar setae shorter than lamellar and rostral, exobothridial setae vestigial; rostral setae remote far from rostrum and distance between rostral larger than between lamellar setae. Notogastral setae fine, short, setae, length of c 1 setae is smaller than half of distance between c 1 and d 1 setae. Setae c 1-3 remote from anterior border, setae c3 slightly less than others. Ventral region; palps with formula 2-1-8(1); setae h of mentum considerably longer than distance between them; 4 pairs of minute genital setae present, setae g 1 situated in progenital position, setae g 2 in the border of progenital zone; aggenital setae absent; 3 pairs of fine anal and 3 pairs slightly longer adanal setae present; lyrifissures iad located between an 3 and ad 3 setae. Formulae of leg setae and solenidia: I: 1-2-3(2)-5(1)-16(3); II: 1-2-3(1)-2(1)-14(2); III: 1-2-2(1)-2(1)-9; IV: 1-1-0-2(1)-8.

Localities in Madagascar (central and eastern parts) and Comoros: Mahunka 1993, 1994, 1999, Niedbala 1998a.

Distribution — Afrotropical, eastern islands only.

Microtritia striatissima Mahunka, 1999

(Figure 37)

Microtritia striatissima Niedbala 2001

Figure 37. Microtritia striatissima Mahunka, 1989. A-D (specimen from MAG-096); E (holotype); F-I (specimen from MAG-081): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – mentum of subcapitulum; D – right genitoaggenital plate; E – anterior part of "Notogaster", lateral view; F – prodorsum, dorsal view; G – prodorsum, lateral view; H – opisthosoma, lateral view; I – posterior part of ventral region.

I examined once again the holotype in alcohol.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 318, height 111; notogaster: length 586, height 404 (Niedbala 2001). Measurements of specimens from sample MAG-081: prodorsum: length 323, height 106, width 222, ss 61, in 20, le 25, ro 25; notogaster: length 626, height 434, width 414, setae: c 1 63, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.5, h 1 45, ps 1 48. Measurements of specimens from sample MAG-096: prodorsum: length 278, height 96, width 215, ss 88, in 15, le 7, ro 30; notogaster: length 520, height 404, width 353.

Body size large compared to other congeners; colour brown, surface of notogaster and ventral plates striated; some irregular spots also present. Prodorsum with two pairs of lateral carinae; sensilli long, narrowly fusiform, smooth; other setae minute, with exception of ex – vestigial; ro-ro>le-le. Notogaster with minute setae, setae of row c remote from anterior margin, setae c 2 less than setae c 1 and c 3. Ventral region; 4 pairs of genital setae, g 1 in progenital position, g 2 remote from paraxial margin; aggenital setae absent; 3 pairs of anal and 3 pairs of longer adanal setae present; lyrifissures iad anteriorly of ad 3 setae; terminal sinus present.

Remarks — Morphological characters of the specimens found are generally the same as in description by Mahunka (1999) and additional description by Niedbala (2001). Dimensions of holotype are similar to those established in the specimens from samples MAG-081 and MAG-091. However in the specimens from sample MAG-081 some characters are new (Figure 37F); prodorsum with thick posterior furrows and some furrows between rostral and interlamellar setae; between theses furrows some fine striations and anteriorly of rostral setae some irregular lines but generally prodorsum is smooth. These characters are absent in the specimens from sample MAG-096 (Figure 37A).

Locality in Madagascar (central part): Mahunka 1999, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Microtritia tropica Märkel, 1964

(Figure 38)

Microtritiu ethiopica Mahunka, 1988 syn. by Niedbala 1998a

Microtritia tropica: Niedbala 1998a, Niedbala 2008a

Figure 38. M. tropica Märkel, 1964 (typus): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 130, weight 147, height 76; setae: ss 76, le 25, ro 33; notogaster: length 328, weight 227, height 242; setae: c 1 43, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.6, h 1 38, ps 1 35; genitoaggenital plate 86x48; anoadanal plate 142x38.

Small-sized species, colour yellow; integument punctate. Prodorsum with simple, long lateral carinae; sensilli long, setiform, somewhat fusiformly thickened and finely ciliated; interlamellar setae minute; lamellar and rostral setae fine, similar in length; distance between rostral setae considerably greater than distance between lamellar setae. Notogaster with short (c 1/c 1-d 1), fine, flexible setae, setae c 1-3 remote from anterior border. Ventral region; 5 pairs of genital setae present; aggenital setae absent; anal setae shorter than adanal setae. Chaetome of legs: I: 1-2-3(2)-5(1)-14(3), II: 1-2-2(1)-2(1)- 11(2), III: 1-2-2(1)-2(1)-9, IV: 1-1-1-2(1)- 9.

Localities in Seychelles islands: Mahunka 1988a, Niedbala 1998a, 2010, Niedbala & Starý 2015c and Madagascar: Mahunka 2009b.

Distribution — Pantropical.

Phthiracaroidea Perty, 1841

Body only slightly compressed laterally, anogenital region relatively wide, almost U-shaped. Legs monodactylous.

Phthiracaridae Perty, 1841

Monotypic family with the diagnosis as that of the genus.

Phthiracarus Perty, 1839

Body integumental surface smooth or punctate (with some exceptions). Median and lateral sigillar fields of prodorsum mostly not fused; lateral carinae of prodorsum either long, extending beyond or reaching sinus, or shorter; no furrows in the back of prodorsum (with some exceptions); sensilli most often smooth, short, fusiform or rounded distally, or long and filiform, without a distinct head; interlamellar setae always parallel to surface of prodorsum, setae of prodorsum and notogaster smooth, fine and long, acuminate. Median crista of notogaster absent; 15 pairs of gastronotal setae, rarely more setae present. Ventral region; pedipalps three segmented with formula: 2-2-7(1); epimera I and II are much larger than epimera II and IV with formula: 1-0-1-1; genital setae arranged in two rows, setae g 6-g 9 remote from paraxial margin, setae g 6 usually near or anteriorly of g 5; adanal setae always remote from the paraxial margin of plate, setae ad 1 and ad 2 well developed, minute or vestigial, neotrichy involving adanal setae can occur. Legs; setae d of tibiae IV short, coupled with solenidia; when present, setae v' on femora I long; setae ft" of tarsi I normal.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan.

Phthiracarus anonymus Grandjean, 1933

(Fig 39)

Archiphthiracarus hauseri Mahunka 1988 syn. by Niedbala 2001

Archiphthiracarus pocsi Mahunka 1983 syn. by Balogh and Balogh 2002

Phthiracarus anonymus: Niedbala 2001

Figure 39. Phthiracarus anonymus Grandjean, 1933 (specimen from Poland): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – lateral view of body; D – genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates; E – trochanter and femur I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of specimen MAG-096: length of prodorsum 240, length of notogaster 418.

Medium-sized species; colour yellowish. Prodorsum with median and lateral fields fairly short; lateral carinae long, extending beyond sinus; sensilli short, clavate, rounded distally, slightly curved, covered with few squama; interlamellar setae not reaching the insertion point of rostral setae; rostral and lamellar setae equal in length; in>ro>le>ex. Notogaster with fairly short setae (c 1/c 1-d 1=0.8), filiform setae, dorsal setae slightly longer than laterals, setae c1 and c 3 located on the anterior margin, setae c 2 further away from the margin; setae f 1 anteriorly of setae h l; among lyrifissures, only ia and im present. Ventral region, h<h-h; genitoaggenital plate with 9 genital setae: 7(4+3): 2; anoadanal plate with 5 well developed setae, adanal setae longer than anal ones, setae ad l and ad 3 located in a nearly the same row with anal setae. Chaetome of legs reduced; missing setae: v' on femora I, s on tarsi I, s on tarsi II, l' on genua IV, s and pv' on tarsi IV.

Localities in Madagascar (central part) and Reunion islands: Mahunka 1988a, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan.

Phthiracarus baloghorum (Mahunka, 1997)

(Figure 40)

Archiphthiracarella baloghorum Mahunka, 1997

Phthiracarus insularis Balogh 1962 nov. nom. by Mahunka 1997

Phthiracarus baloghorum: Niedbala 2008a

Phthiracarus minor Niedbala 2001 syn. by Mahunka 2002

Archiphthiracarella bulbifera Mahunka 1996 syn. by Niedbala 2001

Microphthiracarus baloghi Mahunka, 1982 syn. nov.

Phthiracarus baloghi: Niedbala 2001

Phthiracarus neominatus Subias, 2004 nov. nom.

Figure 40. Phthiracarus baloghorum (Mahunka, 1997) A-H (specimen from MAG-090). I-N (specimen from MAG-080): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – left genitoaggenital plate; F – left genitoaggenital plate (another specimen); G – left anoadanal plate; H – trochanter and femur of leg I; I – prodorsum, dorsal view; J – prodorsum with anterior and lower parts of opisthosoma, lateral view; K – mentum of subcapitulum; L – right genitoaggenital plate; M – right anoadanal plate; N – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurement of the specimen from sample MAG-080: prodorsum: length 195, width 147, height 81, sensillus 91; notogaster: length 323, width 202, height 232; genitoaggenital plate 99x71 anoadanal plate 88x51; measurements of one of the specimens from sample MAG-090: prodorsum: length 303, height 129, width 217, setae: sensilli 135, interlamellar 25, lamellar 45, rostral 33; notogaster: length 495, height 379, width 414, setae: c1 7, h1 10, ps1 20; genitoaggenital plate 126x88; anoadanal plate 152x78.

Species of medium size; colour pale brown, yellowish. Prodorsum with indistinct lateral carinae, sigillar fields well-developed, narrow; sensilli long, large, fusiform or bulbiform at proximal half and tapering and needle-like in distal half; other setae short and slender even minute, ss>le>ro>in, rostral setae adjacent as well lamellar and interlamellar setae adjacent. Prodorsum of some specimens from samples: MAG-019, 079, 090, 099, 135, 136, 137 is equipped with distinct median hump. Notogaster with minute setae, setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior margin, setae c3 near the margin; setae h 2 and h 3 located basaly, near of row p 1-4 setae; 3 pairs of lyrifissures: ia, ip and ips present; vestigial setae f 1 located anterior or slightly posterior of h 1 setae. Ventral region; h>h-h; genitoaggenital plates with 8 pairs of setae, 3 pairs in progenital position, setae g 2 more remote from paraxial margin than setae g 1 and g 3; setae g 5-9 distinctly remote from paraxial margin; anoadanal plates bears 5 pairs of minute setae similar in length, distance between anal setae is great. Chaetome of legs incomplete, setae v"of femur I and setae d of genua IV are absent, setae d of femur I straight, located in distal end of article.

Remark — This species differs from other species of genus Phthiracarus by the location of setae g5-9 in one row (instead 2 rows), however they are distanced from paraxial border of plates, while setae g 1-3 in progenital position are not located in one row. Further notes – a considerable distance between anal setae, a very rare trait in species of Phthiracarus.

Localities in Madagascar (central part): Balogh 1962, Mahunka 1996, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, central and eastern parts.

Phthiracarus crispus Hammer, 1972

(Figure 41)

Phthiracarus crispus: Niedbala 1998b

Archiphthiracarus schauenbergi Mahunka 1988 syn. nov.

Phthiracarus schauenbergi: Niedbala 2001

Figure 41. Archiphthiracarus schauenbergi Mahunka, 1988 (paratype) synonym of Phthiracarus crispus Hammer, 1972: A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – anterior part of "Notogaster", lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype of A. schauenbergi synonym of P. crispus. prodorsum: length 245, width 177, height 101, setae: ss 91, in 51, le 33, ro 43, ex 33; notogaster: length 439, width and height 252, c1 56, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.5, h l 51, ps 1 43; genitoaggenital plate 114x76, anoadanal plate 147x63. Size of paratype A. schauenbergi is similar to size of holotype of P. crispus.

Medium-sized species; colour greyish. Prodorsum with median and lateral fields distinct long and narrow; lateral carinae long, posterior furrows not visible; sensilli long, thin, smooth, enlarged in its proximal third and ending in a point; in, le and ro setae fine, smooth, procumbent; ss>in>ro>le=ex. Notogaster with fine, short (c 1<c 1-d 1) setae; setae of row c 1-3 situated near anterior margin, setae c 3 slightly less remote than setae c 1 and c 2; vestigial setae f 1 located anterior of h 1 setae, 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; genitoaggenital plate with 9 genital setae with formula: 7(4+3): 2; anoadanal plate with 5 well developed setae, anal setae longer than adanal setae. Chaetome of legs reduced; missing setae: v' on femora I and s on tarsi I.

Localities in Mauritius and Seychelles islands as P. schauenbergi: Mahunka 1988a, Niedbala 2010, Niedbala & Starý 2015c.

Distribution — Pantropical, eastern part, localities in Madagascar are the westernmost.

Phthiracarus lentulus (C.L. Koch, 1841)

(Figure 42)

Hoplophora lentula C.L. Koch 1841

Phthiracarus angolensis Mahunka 1985: Niedbala 2001

Phthiracarus lentulus: Niedbala 2001

Figure 42. Phthiracarus lentulus (C.L. Koch, 1841) (specimen from Poland – Niedbala 2008b): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – right genitoaggenital plate; F – right anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis. Measurements of specimen from Poland (Niedbala 2008b): prodorsum 379, notogaster 727.

Rather large-sized species; colour pale brown to brown. Prodorsum with median (narrow) and lateral fields distinct; lateral carinae long, extending beyond sinus; sensilli fairly long, narrowly fusiform, tapering, pointed at the end; in>le>ro>ex. Notogaster with fairly short setae (c 1<c 1-d 1); setae c l and c 2 at a distance from the anterior margin, but c 3 is adjacent to it; vestigial setae f 1 usually anteriorly of setae h 1 rarely at the same level; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; h<h-h; genitoaggenital plates with 9 pairs of setae, 7(4+3): 2; anoadanal plates with 5 pairs of setae, ad 1 and ad 2 vestigial, anal setae longer than ad 3. Chaetome of legs complete; v"/v'=1.4-1.6.

Species new for MAG.

Distribution — Holarctic, probably introduced to Afrotropic (Angola, Madagascar).

Phthiracarus nitens (Nicolet, 1855)

(Figure 43)

Hoplophora nitens Nicolet 1855

Phthiracarus nitens: Niedbala 2001, Niedbala & Starý 2015c

Figure 43. Phthiracarus nitens (Nicolet, 1855) (specimen from Poland – Niedbala 2008b): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – right genitoaggenital plate; E – right anoadanal plate; F – femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of specimen from Poland (Niedbala 2008b): prodorsum 459, notogaster 837.

Rather large-sized species; colour light to dark brown. Prodorsum with median and lateral fields not very distinct; lateral carinae long, extending beyond sinus; sensilli short, fusiform; in>le>ro>ex>ss. Notogaster with weak, medium-length setae, c 1 <c 1-d 1, setae c 1 and c 2 away from the anterior margin, but c 3 near to it; vestigial setae f 1 posteriorly of setae h 1; all lyrifissures ia, im, ip, ips present. Ventral region: h$eq$h-h; genitoaggenital plates with 9 pairs of genital setae, formula 6(4+2): 3; anoadanal plates with five pairs of setae, setae ad 1 and ad 2 vestigial, anal setae longer than ad 3. Chaetome of legs complete; v"/v'=1.3.

Locality in Reunion: Niedbala & Starý 2015c.

Distribution — Western Palaearctic but introduced into different parts of the world to Saint Helena Island, to Peru and to Reunion.

Phthiracarus ochthus Niedbala, 2001

(Figure 44)

Figure 44. Phthiracarus ochthus Niedbala, 2001 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – right genitoaggenital plate; E – right anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 303, width 227, height 106; notogaster: length 530, width 379, height 318.

Species of medium size; colour yellow or light brown. Prodorsum with distinct median hump or crista; lateral carinae absent; median sigillar field longer than lateral ones; sensilli short, fusiform, smooth; rostral and lamellar setae fine, rather short, rostral setae minute; in>le>ro; exobothridial setae vestigial. Notogaster with setae smooth, fairly short (c 1/c 1-d 1=0,6); setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior margin, setae c 3 close to margin; vestigial setae f 1 anterior of h 1 setae, setae f 2 situated between lyrifissures im and ip; 4 pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip, ips present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum almost equal to distance between them; arrangement of genital setae 5(4+1): 4; setae g 6 is unusually remote from paraxial margin of plate; anoadanal plates each with 5 setae, setae ad 1 and ad 2 the longest, setae ad 3 slightly longer than anal ones. Leg setation complete; setae d on femora I situated on the distal end of article.

Localities in Madagascar (northern and central parts): Niedbala 2001

Distribution — Afrotropical, central and eastern parts.

Phthiracarus paracrispus Niedbala et Starý, 2016

(Figure 45)

Figure 45. Phthiracarus paracrispus Niedbala et Starý, 2016 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – anoadanal plates; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 283, width 202, height 101: notogaster: length 581, width 379, height 328.

Species of medium size; colour greyish. Prodorsum with median and lateral fields distinct long and narrow; lateral carinae long; posterior furrows not visible; sensilli long, thin, smooth, enlarged in its proximal third and ending in a point. Interlamellar and lamellar fine, smooth, semierect, rostral setae curved and directed downwards; exobothridial setae rather long; in>le>ro=ss>ex. Notogaster with fine, rather long setae (c 1>c 1-d 1); setae of row c, c 1 and c 3 slightly remote from anterior margin, setae c 2 far from margin; vestigial setae f 1 located posterior of h 1 setae, 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum shorter than distance between them; genitoaggenital plate with 9 genital setae with formula: 7(4+3): 2; anoadanal plates with 5 pairs of well-developed setae, anal setae considerably longer than adanal setae, ad 1 and ad 3 short, ad 2 minute. Chaetome of legs complete; setae d of femora I thin, remote from distal end of article.

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2016b.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Phthiracarus parapocsi Niedbala, 2001

(Figure 46)

Figure 46. Phthiracarus parapocsi Niedbala, 2001 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – left genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates; E – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 328, width 212, height 126; notogaster: length 626, width 465, height 444.

Rather large-sized species; colour brown. Prodorsum with fields well visible, lateral carinae absent; sensilli short with thin pedicel and round head; other setae simple, attenuate, in>le>ro>ex. Notogaster with long setae (c 1>c 1-d 1), flagelliform, attenuate; setae of row c remote from anterior border, setae c 2 more remote than setae c l and c 3; vestigial setae f 1 posterior of h 1 setae; 4 pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip and ips present. Ventral side; formula of genital setae: 4: 5; setae of anoadanal plates well developed, long, attenuate, almost similar in length. Chaetome of legs complete.

Localities in Madagascar (central-eastern part): Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Phthiracarus pygmaeus Balogh, 1958

(Figure 47)

Archiphthiracarus foveolatus Mahunka 1988 syn. by Niedbala 2001

Phthiracarus pygmaeus: Niedbala 2001

Figure 47. Phthiracarus pygmaeus Balogh, 1958 (paratype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – right genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates; E – femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype: prodorsum: length 126, width 101, height 58; notogaster: length 232, height 144.

Small-sized species; colour yellowish, body surface with strong, spaced punctuation (small concavities). Prodorsum with median field broad, lateral very short; lateral carinae short; sensilli long, rough, tapering; other setae simple, attenuate, interlamellar setae located in front of lamellar setae; ss>ro>le>in. Notogaster with short, attenuate setae (c l<c l-d l); setae c 1 near the anterior margin, setae c 2 and c 3 remote from anterior border; vestigial setae and lyrifissures not visible. Ventral side; h<h-h; genitoaggenital plates with 9 pairs of setae after formula: 9(4+5): 0; setae of anoadanal plates well developed, long, attenuate, almost similar in length. Chaetome of legs incomplete; setae v' on femora I, setae s on tarsi I and setae s on tarsi II are absent.

Localities in Reunion: Mahunka 1988a, Niedbala 2001 and in Seychelles: Niedbala 2008a; new for continental Madagascar.

Distribution — Pantropical.

Phthiracarus ranomafanensis Niedbala et Starý, 2016

(Figure 48)

Figure 48. Phthiracarus ranomafanensis Niedbala et Starý, 2016 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – left side of posterior part of "Notogaster"; E – left genitoaggenital plate; F – right side of anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 364, width 273, height 136; notogaster: length 515, width 454, height 485.

Rather large-sized species; colour light brown. Prodorsum with distinct sigillar fields; lateral carinae absent; sensilli short, club-shaped with rounded head; setae fine, attenuate, in>ro>le>ex, rostral setae procumbent. Notogaster with 15 pairs of very short (c 1 shorter than half of distance between c 1-d 1) pairs of fine, attenuate setae; setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior margin, setae c 3 situated near the margin. Vestigial setae f 1 located anterior of h 1 setae (left side of holotype) or at the level of h 1 setae (right side of holotype); four pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip and im present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum slightly longer than distance between them; formula of genital setae 4: 5; anoadanal plates with 5 pairs of very short setae, setae ad 1 the longest; adanal plates situated near paraxial border of plates, setae ad 1 at the level of an 1 and setae ad 2 at the level of an 2. Chaetome of legs of "complete type"; setae d of femora I long, robust and slightly remote from distal end of article.

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2016b.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Steganacaridae Niedbala, 1986

Body integumental surface usually covered with concavities and protuberances; posterior furrows of prodorsum usually present; lateral carinae rarely long, extending beyond sinus; setae of variable form, if smooth, they are spiniform or flagelliform, most commonly covered with spicules or are rod-, club- or leaf-shaped; usually nine pairs of genital setae present.

Plonaphacarus Niedbala, 1986

Median and lateral fields of prodorsum not fused; rostral setae inserted far from the end of rostrum. "Notogaster" usually with 15 pairs of setae. Ventral region; genital setae arranged in two rows, setae g7-9 always remote from the paraxial margin; adanal setae at a distance from the paraxial margin of anoadanal plate. Legs; setae d of tibiae IV long and independent of solenidia, setae v' of femora I present.

Distribution — Pantropical, uncommon in Palaearctic.

Plonaphacarus kugohi (Aoki, 1959)

(Figure 49)

Hoplophthiracarus kugohi Aoki 1959

Hoplophthiracarus africanus Mahunka 1984 syn. by Niedbala 2001

Plonaphacarus kugohi: Niedbala 2001

Figure 49. Plonaphacarus kugohi (Aoki, 1959) (specimen from Australia): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – left genitoaggenital plate; E – left anoadanal plate.

Diagosis — Measurements after Aoki (1959): length of prodorsum 300-320; length of notogster 590-630.

Species of medium size; colour light brown, brown; surface of body covered with concavities. Prodorsum with lateral carinae very long reach anterior end of rostrum; sigillar fields distinct; posterior furrows present; sensilli long, with long pedicel and fusiform head covered with small spines; interlamellar setae stout, strong covered with small spines in distal half; rostral and lamellar setae spiniform, rough; exobothridial setae minute. Notogaster with fairly short (c 1<c 1-d 1) setae, robust, covered with small spines in distal half; setae c 1 and c 3 near anterior border, setae c 2 remote from border; vestigial setae f 1 posteriorly of h 1 setae; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; setae h of subcapitulum minute; formula of genital setae: 6(4+2): 3; setae ad 2 of anoadanal plates the longest and the thickest. Leg setation reduced, setae a' on tarsi I are missing.

Localities in Madagascar (eastern part), Seychelles and Comoros: Mahunka 1984a, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Pantropical.

Plonaphacarus machadoi (Balogh, 1958)

(Figure 50)

Steganacarus machadoi Balogh 1958

Plonaphacarus machadoi: Niedbala 2001, Niedbala & Ermilov 2014

Figure 50. Plonaphacarus machadoi (Balogh, 1958) (specimen from type serie): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – left genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates; E – trochanter and femur of leg I; F – tibia of leg IV.

Diagnosis — Measurements of specimen from type series: prodorsum: length 283, width 202, height 103; notogaster: length 530, width 348, height 313.

Medium-sized species; colour brow; surface of body covered with strong concavities. Prodorsum with broad median field, lateral fields very short, lateral carinae reaching the sinus; posterior furrows present; sensilli long, narrow with round head covered with small spines; interlamellar setae erect, long, thick, covered with small spines in distal half; lamellar setae minute, rostral setae long, directed slightly inwards; exobothridial setae minute; in>ss>ro>le=ex. Notogaster with robust setae (c 1/c 1-d 1=1), spinose in distal half; vestigial setae f 1 anteriorly of h 1 setae; four pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip, ips present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; formula of genital setae: 6(4+2): 3; setae ad 2 on ano-adanal plate erect, the longest and the thickest. Leg setation reduced, setae a' on tarsi I are missing.

Species new for MAG.

Distribution — Afrotropical, central part.

Plonaphacarus persimilis Niedbala, 1994

(Figure 51)

Phthiracarus (Trachyhoplophora) somalicus Berlese 1923 (slide 208/10)

Figure 51. Plonaphacarus persimilis Niedbala, 1994. A-D (holotype); E-F (specimen from MAG-281): A – lateral view of body; B – sensillus; C – seta c 2; D – seta c 1; E – mentum of subcapitulum; F – trochanter and femur I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum 255, height 125; notogaster: length 545, height 370. Measurements of specimen from sample MAG-281: prodorsum: length 242, width 167, height 74; notogaster: length 465, width 308, height 268.

Medium-sized species; surface covered with concavities. Prodorsum with fields not visible; posterior furrows present; lateral carinae long; sensilli club-like, distal end with thin spines; interlamellar setae long, semierect covered with small spines distally; lamellar and rostral setae short, spiniform; in>ss>ro>le; exobothridial setae vestigial. Notogaster with setae of medium length (c 1<c 1-d 1), distal half of setae covered with spines of unequal length; setae c 1 and c 3 situated near anterior border, setae c 2 remote from border; vestigial setae f 1 located anterior of h 1 setae; 4 pairs nof lyrifissures, ia, im, ip, ips present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum slightly longer than distance between them; formula of genital setae: 7(4+3): 2; anoadanal plates with 5 pairs of setae, ad 2 very long, equal in width of the entire length, curved distally, other setae spiniform, rough, ad 2>ad 1>ad 3>an. Chaetome of legs complete, setae d of femora I placed at distal end of article.

Remark — It is a very distinctive species through the shape of club-like sensilli with rounded head and a very long curved distally setae ad 2. It was described after a specimen mounted by Berlese in a slide among the specimens of Phthiracarus (Trachychoplophora) somalicus Berlese, 1923 (Niedbala 1994a). Currently, I complete the description only by adding drawings of the mentum, subcapitulum and femur of leg I.

Species new for MAG.

Plonaphacarus tanzicus (Mahunka, 1993)

(Figure 52)

Hoplophthiracarus (Plonaphacarus) tanzicus Mahunka 1993

Plonaphacarus tanzicus: Niedbala 2001, Niedbala & Ermilov 2014

Figure 52. Plonaphacarus tanzicus (Mahunka, 1993) (after Mahunka 1993): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – lateral view of body; C – genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates; D – femur of leg I.

The type has not been found yet (information from Dr E. Horváth from Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, from 10.06.2013)

Diagnosis — Measurements after Mahunka (1993): length of prodorsum: 146-170; length of notogaster: 230-312. Small-sized species; surface of body with very weak foveolae. Prodorsum with posterior furrows present; lateral carinae absent, fields not observable; sensilli sickle-shaped, distally spinose; interlamellar setae short, thick, spiculate asymmetrically at distal end; lamellar setae close to interlamellar, smaller, slightly dilate; distance between rostral setae (directed inwards) greater than their length; exobothridial setae vestigial. Notogaster with short (c 1<c 1-d 1), thick setae, generally spinose in their distal half, setae c1 and ps1 the longest, setae ps 3-4 the thinnest, setae d 2 the smallest; vestigial setae f 1 posteriorly of h 1; 4 pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip, ips present. Ventral region; formula of genital setae is 4: 5; adanal setae sword-shaped, setae ad 2 the longest, anal setae the shortest. Chaetome of legs complete; setae d of femora I thick, bent, slightly remote from anterior bord of article. Species new for MAG.

Distribution — Afrotropical, eastern part.

Hoplophthiracarus Jacot, 1933

Body integumental surface usually covered with concavities. Prodorsum with median sigillar field not fused with lateral fields; furrows usually present on back of prodorsum; interlamellar setae more or less erect; lamellar setae usually very short. Notogaster with 15 pairs of setae, setae c1 shorter than distance between setae c1 and d1 ; two to four pairs of lyrifissures present. Ventral region always with nine pairs of genital setae, setae g 6-9 or g 7-9 located almost in one row with setae g 1-5; adanal setae remote from paraxial margin of anoadanal plate, setae ad 1 longer than anal setae, all setae on anoadanal plate well developed, neotrichy of adanal setae present. Legs, setae d on femora I usually at distal end of segment; setae d of tibiae IV long and independent of solenidion.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan

Hoplophthiracarus paratryssos Niedbala et Starý, 2015

(Figure 53)

Distribution — Afrotropical, eastern part.

Figure 53. Hoplophthiracarus paratryssos Niedbala et Starý, 2015 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – right genitoaggenital plate; F – left anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I; H – tibia if leg IV.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 217, width 151, height 101; notogaster: length 424, width 273, height 252.

Medium-sized species; colour white yellow; surface of body covered with fine punctuation. Prodorsum with distinct lateral carinae and sigillar fields; sensilli short with thin pedicel and swollen head, rounded in lateral aspect and fusiform in dorsal aspect; other setae short, fine, attenuate, interlamellar distinctly the longest; ro>le>ex. Notogaster with short (c 1/c 1-d 1=0.6), fine and attenuate setae; setae c 2 more remote from anterior border than setae c 1 and c 3; vestigial setae f 1 situated anterior of h 1 setae, setae f 2 situated anterior above h 3 setae; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum as long as distance between them; arrangement of genital setae: 6(4+2): 3; anoadanal plates with rather long, fine setae, similar in length except shorter ad 3 setae. Chaetome of legs of "incomplete type", femora of legs I with three setae, setae d remote from distal end of segment.

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2015a.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Arphthicarus Niedbala, 1994

Median and lateral sigillar fields of prodorsum not fused; lamellar setae short, length ratio of lamellar setae/prodorsum < 0.2. Notogaster with 15 pairs of setae, rarely neotrichous; setae c1 usually shorter than distance between setae c1 and d1 . Ventral region; setae g 7-g 9 displaced towards the paraxial margin of anoadanal plate, almost in row with setae g 1-g 5, setae g 6 remote from the margin and located anteriorly of g 5, when it is placed posteriorly these setae, the distance between g 6 and g 5 is shorter than that between g 5 and g 4; adanal setae well developed, setae ad 1 remote from paraxial margin and longer than anal setae; setae ad 2 also remote from margin.

Distribution — Pantropical, in Palaearctic only in southern border.

Arphthicarus inelegans (Niedbala, 1986)

(Fig 54)

Hoplophthiracarus inelegans Niedbala 1986

Hoplophthiracarus atypicus Mahunka 1988 syn. by Niedbala 2001

Arphthicarus inelegans: Niedbala 2001

Figure 54. Hoplophthicarus atypicus Niedbala, 1988 synonym of Arphthicarus inelegans (Niedbala, 1986): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – sculpture of "Notogaster"; E – right genitoaggenital plate; F – right anoadanal plate.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype of H. atypicus: prodorsum: length 260, width 186, height 126; notogaster: length 505, width 353, height 303. Paratype of H. atypicus is slightly greater than holotype of A. inelegans.

Species of medium size; colour brown; surface of body covered with deep foveoles. Median sigillar field narrow and longer than lateral ones; posterior furrows and lateral carinae absent; sensilli with thin pedicel and rounded head covered with small spines; interlamellar setae thick, semi-erect and covered with small spines in distal half; lamellar and rostral setae short, ro>le; exobothridial setae vestigial. Notogaster with setae fairly short (c l<c l-d l) thick, straight, covered with spines in distal half; setae c 3 and cp distinctly shorter and bent; setae c 1 located near anterior border, setae c 2 and c 3 remote from border; vestigial setae f 1 anterior of h l setae; 4 pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip, ips present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum shorter than distance between them; formula of genital setae: 6(4+2): 3; setae ad 1 and ad 2 longer and thicker than anal setae, all setae rough, setae ad 3 the shortest and covered with small spines in distal part. Leg setation complete, setae d of femora I at distal end of article.

Localities in Mauritius and Reunion islands: Mahunka 1988a, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Pantropical.

Arphthicarus paratinctus Niedbala et Starý, 2015

(Figs. 55)

Figure 55. 54A-E. Arphthicarus paratinctus Niedbala et Starý, 2015 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view, B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates; E – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 202, width 134, height 73; notogaster: length 343, width 227, height 217.

Small-sized species; colour brown light; cuticle well sculptured with weak concavities. Prodorsum with sigillar fields not very distinct, median field large; lateral carinae absent; sensilli with short, narrow pedicel and globular head, rough; other setae very short, spiniform, rough, ro>in>ss=le>ex. Notogaster with 15 pairs of short spiniform, rough setae tapering distally, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.75; setae c 1 near anterior border, setae c 3 slightly remote and setae c 2 far from anterior notogastral border; vestigial setae invisible; 3 pairs of lyrifissures im, ip and ips present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum slightly longer than distance between them; genitoaggenital plates with 9 pairs of genital setae with arrangement:6(4+2): 3; anoadanal plates each with 5 of setae, setae ad 3 the smallest, setae ad 2 the longest and situated near setae ad 1 and near proximal border of plate. Legs; formulae of setae and solenidia of "complete type"; setae d of femora I long and considerably remote from distal end of article, setae l" situated near distal end.

Locality in Seychelles: Niedbala & Starý 2015c.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Seychelles, endemic.

Arphthicarus phoxos Niedbala et Starý, 2016

(Figs 56)

Figure 56. Arphthicarus phoxos Niedbala & Starý 2016 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – right genitoaggenital plate; F – left anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 227, width 157, height 106; notogaster: length 429, width 308, height 263.

Medium sized species; colour brown; integument roughed. Prodorsum with feeble sigillar fields, median longer than laterals; lateral carinae absent; posterior furrows present; sensilli long, narrow, falcate covered with 10, 11 cilia in distal end; other setae spiniform, rough (except smooth exobothridial); ss>ro>in>ex>le. Notogaster with almost procumbent, tapering, rough setae of medium length, length of c 1 setae almost equal to distance between setae c 1 and d 1; setae c 1 situated close to anterior margin, setae c 3 slightly remote and c 2 considerably remote from margin; vestigial setae and lyrifissures not visible. Ventral region; setae h of subcapitular mentum absent; genitoaggenital plates with 9 pairs of setae with formula: 6(4+2): 3; anoadanal plates each with 5 pairs of long, rough and tapering setae, especially setae ad 1 and ad 2 longest and similar to notogastral setae. Legs; formulae of setae and solenidia of "complete type"; setae d on femora I slightly remote from distal end of article.

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2016a.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Arpthicarus sculptilis (Niedbala, 1988)

(Figs 57, 58)

Hoplophthiracarus sculptilis Niedbala 1988

Hoplophthiracarus magnus Mahunka 1988 syn. by Niedbala 2001

Arpthiracarus sculptilis: Niedbala 2001

Figure 57. Arpthiracarus sculptilis (Niedbala, 1988) (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – left genitoaggenital plate; E – right anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Figure 58. Arpthiracarus sculptilis (Niedbala, 1988) (specimens from MAG-281). A-G – form B; H – form A: A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – right genitoaggenital plate; F – right anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I; H – anterior half of opisthosoma, lateral view.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype: prodorsum: length 318, width 222, height 131; notogaster: length 666, width 418, height 425.

Rather large-sized species; colour brown; body surface covered with deep concavities. Median and lateral fields, lateral carinae and posterior furrows of prodorsum absent; sensilli enlarged towards distal end, rounded distally; interlamellar setae long, thick, erect, covered with small spines in distal half; rostral setae robust, directed inwards, rough; lamellar setae vestigial; exobothridial setae minute. Notogaster with fairly short (c 1/c 1-d 1=0,9), pointed distally setae, covered with spines in distal half; setae c 3 located near anterior border, setae c 1 and c 2 remote from border, setae c 2 more than c 1; vestigial setae f 1 posterior of h l setae; 4 pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip, ips present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; formula of genital setae: 6(4+2): 3; setae ad 2 the longest and thickest, setae ad 2 and ad 3 located near paraxial margin. Leg chaetome reduced, setae a' on tarsi I are missing; setae d of femora I remote from anterior margin of article.

Remarks — In sample MAG-281 I noticed two populations of this species, both with considerable variability in body size. Apart from that, they differ only in the image of body surface. The one which I tentatively called "A" in accordance with the holotype from Mohéli (Comoros) has body surface covered with deep concavities, on genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates inclusive (Figure 58H). Surface of the second population "B" is rugged, only posterior part of notogaster on the height setae h 1, ps 1, ps 2 have feeble foveoles (Figure 58C). Also vestigial setae f 1 are not visible.

Measurements of one of specimens "A" from MAG-281: prodorsum: length 293, width 202, height 101 setae: ss 66, in 111, ro 76, le 15; notogaster: length 566, width 404, height 394, setae: c 1 106, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.8, h 1 111, ps 1 53; genitoaggenital region 152x121; anoadanal region 202x152. Measurements of another specimen "A": prodorsum: length 323, height 141; notogaster: length 717, height 495; setae: c 1 114, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.7, h 1 and ps 1 127. Measurements of specimen "B": prodorsum: length 374, height 167; notogaster: length 798, height 505.

Localities in Madagascar (eastern part), Comoros and Reunion: Mahunka 1988a, Niedbala 1988, 2001, 2008a.

Distribution — Afrotropical, central and eastern parts of islands.

Arphthicarus trichosus (Mahunka, 1988)

(Figure 59)

Hoplophthiracarus trichosus Mahunka 1988a

Calyptophthiracarus trichosus: Mahunka 1992

Arphthicarus trichosus: Niedbala 2001

Figure 59. Arphthicarus trichosus (Mahunka, 1988) (paratype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – seta h 1; E – fragment of right genitoaggenital plate; F – right anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype: prodorsum: length 404, width 278, height 151; notogaster: length 741, width 495, height 520.

Large-sized species; colour brown; body covered with concavities. Prodorsum with broad median field longer than lateral ones; lateral carinae present; posterior furrows weakly visible; sensilli long, thick, pointed at distal end and covered with small spines et distal end; interlamellar setae very long, thick, erect, covered with spines at distal end; rostral setae relatively long, rough, directed inwards; lamellar setae vestigial, exobothridial setae minute. Notogaster with setae long (c 1/c 1-d 1=1.3); setae c 1 and c 3 near anterior margin, setae c 2 considerably remote from margin; vestigial setae f 1 absent; 4 pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip, ips present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum slightly longer than distance between them; arrangement of genital setae 6(4+2): 3; anoadanal plates each with 5 relatively thick setae, ad 1>ad 2>ad 3>an. Leg setation complete; setae d on femora I remote from distal end of article.

Localities in Mauritius: Mahunka 1988a, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, Mauritius, endemic.

Arphthicarus veteratorius (Niedbala, 1988)

(Figure 60)

Hoplophthiracarus veteratorius Niedbala 1988

Austrophthiracarus veteratorius: Niedbala 2001

Figure 60. Arphthicarus veteratorius (Niedbala, 1988) (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – left genitoaggenital plate; E – left anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 257, width 197, height 114; notogaster: length 539, height 351.

Medium-sized species; colour brown; body surface covered with deep concavities. Median sigillar field of prodorsum longer than laterals; posterior furrows distinct, lateral carinae absent; sensilli with narrow pedicel and enlarged head covered with minute spines; interlamellar setae of medium length, semierect, thick covered with small spines in distal half; lamellar and rostral setae short, spiniform, rough; in>ss>ro>le; exobothridial setae vestigial. Notogaster with fairly short (c 1<c 1-d 1), rigid, obtuse distally setae, covered with spines in distal half; setae c 1 slightly remote from anterior border, setae c 2 and c 3 more remote from border; vestigial setae f 1 anterior of h 1 setae; 4 pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip, ips present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum shorter than distance between them; formula of genital setae: 6(4+2): 3; setae ad 2 the longest and thickest, setae ad 3 similar to notogastral setae, obtuse distally; setae ad 1 spiniform, pointed distally, longer than ad 3, anal setae smallest, spiniform, rough. Leg chaetome reduced, setae a' on tarsi I are missing; setae d of femora I slightly remote from anterior margin of article.

Locality in Comoros: Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, eastern islands: Madagascar and Comoros.

Protophthiracarus Balogh, 1972

Body surface covered with concavities. Prodorsal posterior furrows present; median and lateral sigillar fields of prodorsum fused or not; exobothridial setae short or vestigial. Neotrichy of notogastral and anoadanal setae present. Ventral region; genital plates with nine pairs of genital setae present; setae g 7-g 9 displaced towards the paraxial margin, form a row with setae g 1-g 5 (sometimes one of these setae not displaced), setae g 6 remote from the margin and situated on the side or anteriorly of g 5; setae of anoadanal plates well developed, setae ad 1 displaced towards the paraxial margin in a row with anal setae, setae ad 2 at a distance from the margin. Legs; setae v' on femora I short (length ratio v"/v'>2.25); setae ft" on tarsus I well developed; setae l' of genua IV present.

Protophthiracarus araios Niedbala, 2001

(Figure 61)

Figure 61. Protophthiracarus araios Niedbala, 2001 A-D (holotype), E (specimen from MAG-035): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – trochanter and femur of legs I. E – prodorsum, lateral view.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 268, width 136, height 124; notogaster: length 530, width 217, height 298; measurements of specimen from MAG-035: prodorsum: length 454, width 323, height 162, ss 81, in 88, le 43, ro 86, ex 33.

Medium-sized species; colour brown, body covered with strong concavities. Prodorsum with distinct furrows in posterior part; median crista strong; fields invisible, lateral carinae absent; sensilli with thin stalk and fusiform, acute head. Other setae (except exobothridial) thick, blunt in distal end, rough, in>ro>le>ex. Notogaster narrow, with setae, fairly short (c 1/c 1-d 1=0,5), unusual shape, thick, covered with strong spines or cilia, similar to aspergillum, setae h 1 and ps 1 longer than remainder; unusual arrangement of setae c: setae c 2 situated on anterior margin, c 1 remote, c 3 far from margin; vestigial setae f 1 situated at the level of h 1 setae; 3 pairs of lyrifissures: ia, im, ip present. Ventral side; arrangement of genital setae: 6(4+2): 3; setae ad 2 of anoadanal plates the longest and located close to paraxial margin; ad 2>an 2>ad 1>an 1>ad 3. Formula of leg setae and solenidia complete; setae d on femora I remote from distal end of article.

Remark — One specimen from Foulpointe (Niedbala 2001) has narrower sensilli, longer rostral setae and distinct cowls on sides of anterior part of notogaster. The specimens from MAG-035 (conspicuously bigger than holotype) have longer prodorsal setae, especially rostral setae in comparison to length of prodorsum and length of sensilli.

Localities in Madagascar (eastern part): Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Protophthiracarus mahunkai Niedbala et Starý, 2013

(Figs 62)

Figure 62. Protophthiracarus mahunkai Niedbala et Starý, 2001 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – left genitoaggenital plate; F – left anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 303, width 202, height 141; notogaster: length 606, width 313, height 364.

Medium-sized species; colour brown; cuticle well sculptured, integument with deep rounded concavities. Prodorsum with strong median crista; median sigillar fields large, laterals parts very short, rounded; posterior furrows present; lateral carinae absent sensilli with short, thin pedicel, enlarged towards distal end and fusiform, rough head; interlamellar setae short, strong, semi-erect, thick and covered sparsely by barbs at distal half, similar to notogastral setae; lamellar setae shorter, spiniform, rough; exobothridial setae minute; rostral setae, spiniform, rough, curved and directed inward; ss>in>ro>le>ex. Notogaster with thick, short (c 1/c 1-d 1=0,6) setae sparsely barbed at distal half, median setae even in shape of aspergillum, shorter than dorsal setae, especially h 1 and ps 1 ; setae c 1 and c 3 remote from anterior border, setae c 2 far from border; vestigial setae f 1 not visible because of strong sculpturing; 4 pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip and ips present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum minute; genitoaggenital plates with 9 pairs of genital setae with arrangement: 6(4+2): 3; anoadanal plates each with 5 rough setae, adanal setae ad 2 the longest, situated near anal setae, setae ad 3 smallest. Legs, formulae of setae and solenidia of "complete type"; setae d of femora I remote from distal end of article.

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala et Starý 2013.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Protophthiracarus mayottei Niedbala, 2001

(Figure 63)

Figure 63. Protophthiracarus mayottei Niedbala, 2001 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – paraxial margin of left genitoaggenital plate; E – paraxial margin of left anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 404, width 283, height 156; notogaster: length 780, height 507.

Large-sized species; colour light brown; body covered with strong cerotegument, prodorsum covered with weak concavities, notogaster and ventral plates with strong concavities. Integument of dorsal side of notogaster in shape of irregular lines. Fields of prodorsum and posterior furrows invisible; lateral carinae absent; sensilli elongate, gradually thickening, without well separated head; rostral setae strong, thick, rough similar to gastronotic setae, interlamellar and lamellar setae fine, attenuate; ro>ss>in>le; exobothridial setae vestigial. Notogaster with relatively short setae (c 1/c 1-d 1=0,77), thick, spiniform, rough; dorsal setae longer than lateral ones; setae c 3 close to anterior margin, setae c 1 remote, setae c 2 far from anterior margin; vestigial setae and lyrifissures invisible because of the strong cerotegument. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; arrangement of genital plate: 7(4+3): 2; anoadanal plates each with 5 setae; setae ad 2 thick, the longest close to an 1 setae; ad 2>an 2>ad 1>ad 3=an 1. Leg setation complete; setae d on femora I strong, bent, remote from distal end of article.

Locality in Mayotte (Comoros): Niedbala 2001, 2008a.

Distribution — Afrotropical, eastern part.

Notophthiracarus Ramsay, 1966

Notogaster with 15 pairs of setae, rarely neotrichous. Ventral region; nine pairs of genital setae arranged in a single row, distance between setae g 6 and g 9 longer than between g 5 and g 4 or g 3 and g 4; five pairs of setae on anoadanal plates present, setae ad 1 and ad 2 remote from paraxial margin, well developed, minute or vestigial. Legs; setae v' on femora I (if present) minute (length ratio v"/v'<2.2); setae l' on genua IV always present.

Distribution — Pantropical in Palaearctic only in southern border.

Notophthiracarus andasibensis Niedbala et Starý, 2014

(Figure 64)

Figure 64. Notophthiracarus andasibensis Niedbala et Starý, 2014 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – right genitoaggenital plate; F – left anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 419, width 303, height 167; notogaster: length 768, width 237, height 515.

Rather large-sized species; colour brown; surface of body porose. Prodorsum with distinct median crista but without lateral carinae; sigillar fields well developed, long, narrow; sensilli short, dilated, lanceolate; other setae filiform, exobothridial setae longer than rostral setae and sensilli; in>le>ex>ro>ss. Notogaster with rather short (c 1=c 1 -d 1), filiform setae, setae c 1, d 1 and e 1 longer than other; setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior border, setae c 3 situated near the; all 4 pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip, ips and 2 pairs of vestigial setae f 1 and f 2 present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum shorter than distance between them; formula of genital setae: 4: 5; anoadanal plates with 5 pairs of short, filiform setae, adanal setae ad 1 the longest. Chaetome of legs of "complete type", setae d of femora I long situated slightly at distal end of the article.

Localities in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2014c.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus bicarinatus Niedbala, 2001

(Figure 65)

Figure 65. Notophthiracarus bicarinatus Niedbala, 2001 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – dorsal fragment of "Notogaster"; E – left genitoaggenital plate; F – right anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 515, width 197, height 232; notogaster: length 1111, width 808, height 768.

Large-sized species; colour brown; surface of body covered with foveoles. Prodorsum with strong median crista and well developed lateral carinae, posterior furrows present, fields invisible because of strong sculpture; sensilli long, thin, attenuate, rough; interlamellar and lamellar setae long, procumbent covered with small spines; rostral setae simple, fine, smooth, directed inward; exobothridial setae minute; in>ss>le>ro>ex. Notogaster with 2 dorsal, longitudinal cristae, framed flat field and short (c 1<c 1-d 1) setae covered with distinct spines in distal half; setae of row c remote from anterior border, setae c 1 more, setae c 3 less; vestigial setae and lyrifissures invisible because of strong sculpture. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; formula of genital seta: 4: 5; setae of anoadanal plates strong, rough, ad 2>ad 1>an>ad 3. Chaetome of legs of "complete type"; setae d of femora I slightly remote from anterior margin.

Locality in Madagascar (northern part): Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus clavifer (Mahunka, 1988)

(Figure 66)

Phthiracarus clavifer Mahunka 1988

Phthiracarus hamatus Hammer 1973

Archiphthiracarus hamatus: Mahunka 1988a

Figure 66. Notophthiracarus clavifer (Mahunka, 1988) (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – right genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates; E – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 185, width 126, height 71; notogaster: length 323, width 197, height 348.

Small-sized species; colour light brown; surface of prodorsum punctate, surface of notogaster feebly foveolate. Prodorsum with indistinct, rather shorty sigillar fields; lateral carinae and posterior furrows absent; sensilli short, clavate, with globular head; interlamellar setae long, rigid, erect, attenuate, with hooked distal end (not spatulate as in oryginal description); lamellar setae simple, short; rostral setae longer, spiniform, exobothridial setae minute. Notogaster with setae rather long (c 1>c 1-d 1), stout with hooked distal end; setae c l, c 2, c 3, cp and ps 4 longer than other setae; setae c 1 located at anterior margin, setae c 2 and c 3 slightly remote from margin; vestigial setae f 1 slightly posterior of setae h l; 3 pairs of lyrifisures ia, im and ip present. Ventral region; formula of genital setae: 8(4+4): 1; setae of anoadanal plates different in shape, setae ad 3 similar in length and shape to notogastral setae; anal setae shorter but thin and attenuate without distal hooks, adanal setae ad 1 and ad 2 vestigial. Chaetome of legs incomplete; setae v" of femora I and setae l"of genual IV absent; setae d of femora I forked distally and situated in the middle of article.

Remark — Phthiracarus hamatus is very distinctive species described from Tongatapu Island (Polynesia) by Hammer (1973) and mentioned by Mahunka (1988a, p. 1080) from Reunion, without a diagnosis or figures and I suppose that it is simply N. clavifer.

Localities in Reunion: Mahunka 1988a, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, La Reunion only, endemic.

Notophthiracarus dactyloscopicus (Mahunka, 1978)

(Figure 67)

Hoplophthiracarus dactyloscopicus Mahunka 1978

Notophthiracarus dactyloscopicus: Niedbala 1994, 2001

Figure 67. Notophthiracarus dactyloscopicus (Mahunka, 1978) (paratype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma – lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – right genitoaggenital plate; F – right anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of type series (Mahunka 1978b): prodorsum: length 174-198, notogaster: length 323-396, height 188-212.

Small-sized species; colour brown; surface of body ornamented with longitudinal parallel ribs resembling dermatoglyph of a finger. Prodorsum with median and lateral fields invisible; sensilli short, with rounded head; other setae thin, smooth, interlamellar the longest, erect; in>le>ro=ss>ex. Notogaster with 15 pairs of short (c 1<c 1-d 1) thin, slightly flagellate setae; setae c 1 and c 3 slightly remote from anterior border, setae c 2 far from border; vestigial setae f 1 anterior of h 1 setae; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; formula of genital seta: 6(4+2): 3; setae of anoadanal plates well developed, similar in length. Chaetome of legs of "incomplete type"; setae v' of femora I absent; setae d of femora I situated in the middle of aticle.

Locality in Mauritius: Mahunka 1978b, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Mauritius, endemic.

Notophthiracarus dispersus Niedbala et Starý, 2015

(Figure 68)

Figure 68. Notophthiracarus dispersus Niedbala et Starý, 2015 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – left genitoaggenital plate; F – right anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 525, width 353, height 227; notogaster: length 1010, width and height 687.

Large-sized species; colour reddish brown; surface of body covered with dispersed small, rounded and deep concavities. Prodorsum with feeble, short median crista; lateral carinae well developed, long; sigillar fields very narrow, median trapezoide distally and longer than laterals; sensilli of medium length, baciliform covered with small spines in distal half; interlamellar setae rigid, erect, similar to notogastral setae, covered sparsely with small spines; rostral setae (directed inward) and lamellar setae spiniform, exobothridial setae minute; in>ss>ro>le>ex. Notogaster with different length of rigid setae, c 1 and ps 1 the longest (c 1>c 1-d 1), setae h 2, ps 3 shortest, setae c 3 and h 3 the shortest; all setae sparsely covered with small spines in distal half; setae c 1-3 remote from anterior margin, setae c 2 considerably more than setae c 1 and c 2; vestigial setae f 1 not visible because strong sculpture; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum considerably longer than distance between them; formula of genital setae: 5: 4; anoadanal plates with 5 pairs of rigid, rough setae, except minute and smooth ad 3; setae ad 1 and ad 2 longer than anal, situated near of paraxial border. Chaetome of legs complete; setae d on femora I slightly remote from anterior end of article and bifurcated distally.

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2015a.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus echinus (Balogh, 1962)

(Figure 69)

Hoplophorella echinus Balogh 1962

Notophthiracarus echinus Niedbala 2001

Figure 69. Notophthiracarus echinus (Balogh, 1962) (specimen from sample MAG-66): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of specimen from MAG-066: prodorsum: length 268, width 197, height 101, sensilli 152, setae: interlamellar 152, lamellar 53, rostral 76, exobothridial 15; notogaster: length 535, width 384, height 313, setae: c1 139, h1 131, ps1 142; genitoaggenital plate 126x101; anoadanal plate 192x114.

Medium-sized species; colour dark brown; body strongly sculptured; surface foveolate. Prodorsum with sigillar fields weakly visible, median longer than laterals; lateral carinae distinct; sensilli long, sickle-shaped, flagellate in distal half; interlamellar and rostral setae erect, thick, baciliform, rough, obtuse distally, similar to notogastral setae, interlamellar three times longer than lamellar, rostral setae also thick but spiniform, semi-erect, rough, exobothridial setae minute; in=ss>ro>le>ex. Notogaster with medium length setae (c1 /c1 -d1 =0.9), thick, rough, obtuse distally, setae c 1 located at anterior margin, setae c 2 and c 3 away from the anterior margin, setae c 2 more than c 3; vestigial setae and lyrifissures not visible because strong sculpture. Ventral region; h>h-h; formula for genital setae is 6(4+2): 3; anoadanal plates with five pairs of long, rough, spiniform setae, except the shortest, smooth ad 3 setae; ad 1 and ad 2 the longest, anal setae flagellate distally. Setation of legs complete, setae d of femora I bifurcated and located at distal end of article.

Locality in Madagascar (central part): Balogh 1962, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus inusitatus Mahunka, 2010

(Figs 70, 71)

Figure 70. Notophthiracarus inusitatus Mahunka, 2010 (paratype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – left sensillus, dorsal view; C – right sensillus, dorsal view; D – lateral view of body; E – sensillus, lateral view; F – right genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates.

Figure 71. Notophthiracarus inusitatus Mahunka, 2010 (specimen from sample MAG-081): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – lateral view of body; C – mentum of subcapitulum; D – right genitoaggenital plate; E – right anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype: prodorsum: length 137, width 94, height 56, setae: ss 58, in 33, le and ex 5, ro 18; notogaster: length 233, width and height 137, setae: c 1 28, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.5, h 1 23; genitoaggenital plate 66x38; anoadanal plate 88x43. Measurements of specimen from MAG-081: prodorsum: length 157, width 109, height 81, setae: ss 53, in 43, le 7, ro 28; notogaster: length 283, width 192, height 182, setae: c 1 51, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.8, h 1 35, ps 1 33; genitoaggenital plate 83x53; anoadanal plate 109x63.

Small-sized species; colour brown; integument finely foveolate. Prodorsum with distinct sigillar fields, median narrow and longer than laterals; posterior furrows present; lateral carinae present (absent in specimen from MAG-081); sensilli with long, thin pedicel and dilated, fusiform head; interlamellar setae thick, erect, covered with small cilia in distal half; lamellar and rostral (erect) setae needle-like, short, smooth; exobothridial setae minute (vestigial in specimen from MAG-081); ss>in>ro>le=ex. Notogaster with rather short (c 1<c 1-d 1), rigid, thick setae, covered with short cilia in distal part, in shape as interlamellar setae; setae c 1 and c 3 situated close to the anterior border, setae c 2 shifted away from the border; between lyrifissures only ia and im were observed; vestigial setae f 1 situated at the level of h 1 setae. Ventral region; setae h of mentum almost as distance between them; arrangement of small genital setae: 5(4+1): 4; anoadanal plates with unusual arrangement of adanal setae, setae ad 2 far remote anteriorly and situated close to ad 3 setae, setae ad 2 the longest and thickest, anal setae and ad 3 the shortest, all setae rough. Legs setation of "complete type"; seta d on femora I distinctly remote from distal end of segment.

Locality in Madagascar (eastern part): Mahunka 2010.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus lineatus Niedbala et Starý, 2015

(Figure 72)

Figure 72. Notophthiracarus lineatus Niedbala et Starý, 2015. (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – fragment of surface of "Notogaster"; E – mentum of subcapitulum; F – left genitoaggenital plate and paraxial party of right plate; G – left anoadanal plate; H – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 228, width 159, height 94; notogaster: length 404, width 283, height 268.

Medium-sized species; colour light brown; integument very finely foveolate, foveolae on notogaster joined with feeble lines. Prodorsum with weak lateral carinae; sigillar fields distinct, median slightly dilated in distal part, considerably longer than lateral fields; sensilli long, with very narrow stalk and dilated head with tips covered with small spines; interlamellar setae long, thick, erect covered with small spines in distal part, similar in shape to notogastral setae, lamellar and exobothridial setae minute, rostral setae spiniform and rough; in>ss>ro>le. Notogastral setae of medium length (c 1<c 1 -d 1), thick, covered with small spines in distal part; setae c 1 and c 3 slightly remote from anterior margin of notogaster, setae c 2 far from notogastral margin; vestigial setae not discernible; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; formula of genital setae: 6: 3; anoadanal plates with adanal setae ad 2 the longest and the thickest, obtuse distally; adanal setae ad 1 longer and thicker than anal setae, all these setae rough, adanal setae ad 3 minute, smooth. Chaetome of legs of "complete type"; setae d on femora I slightly remote from distal end of article.

Localities in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2015b.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus liratus Niedbala et Starý, 2015

(Figure 73)

Figure 73. Notophthiracarus liratus Niedbala et Starý, 2015 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – fragment of surface of "Notogaster"; E – mentum of subcapitulum; F – right genitoaggenital plate; G – right anoadanal plate; H – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurement of holotype: prodorsum: length 313, width and height 222; notogaster: length 525, width 439, height 404.

Medium-sized species; colour light brown. Prodorsum with posterior part covered with dense foveolae, anterior part with some triangular tubercles; prominent median crista present; only some traces of lateral carinae visible; median sigillar fields long and narrow, longer than lateral ones; sensilli long, bulbous in proximal part and very narrow and tapering in distal part; other setae (except vestigial exobothridial setae) needle-like, smooth; ss>le>in>ro. Surface of notogaster ornamented with longitudinal parallel ribs, resembling finger dermatoglyph; all notogastral setae vestigial; setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior margin of notogaster, setae c 3 situated near notogastral margin; between lyrifissures only im visible; vestigial setae f 1 anterior of setae h 1. Ventral region; setae h of mentum very long, considerably longer than distance between them; arrangement of genital setae: 5: 4; anoadanal plates with similar in length, rather short setae. Chaetome of legs incomplete; setae v" of femora I absent; setae d of femora I needle-like situated at distal end of article.

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2015b.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus malagasensis (Mahunka, 2010)

(Figs 74, 75)

Austrophthiracarus aokii malagasensis Mahunka 2010

Figure 74. Notophthiracarus malagasensis (Mahunka, 2010) (after Mahunka 2010): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – sensillus; C – lateral view of body; D – anterior, paraxial part of genitoaggenital plate; E – genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates.

Figure 75. Notophthiracarus malagasensis (Mahunka, 2010) (paratype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – right genitoaggenital plate; E – right anoadanal plate.

Diagnosis — Measurements after Mahunka (2010): length of prodorsum 347-500; length of notogaster 556-1014. Measurements of paratype: prodorsum: length 353, width 222, height 141, setae: ss 99, in 223, ro and ex 30, le 48; notogaster: length 616, width 374, height 404, setae: c 1 185, c 1/c 1-d 1=1.5, c 3 66, h 1 190, h 2 164, h 3 56, ps 1 202, ps 4 63; genitoaggenital plate 202x96; anoadanal plate 202x91.

Medium-sized species; colour light brown; cuticle covered with foveoles; sigillar fields narrow, lateral carinae short, posterior furrows observable; sensilli straight with long peduncle and weakly separated head covered with small spines; interlamellar setae long, erect, covered with small spines in distal half, similar to notogastral setae; lamellar, rostral, exobothridial setae minute. Notogaster with setiform setae, covered with spines in distal half; setae: c 1, c 2, h 1, ps 1 the longest, setae c 3, cp, d 2, h 3, ps 4 the shortest; 3 pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip present. Ventral region; formula of genital setae: 6: 3, setae g 4 and g 5 situated near each other; setae of anoadanal plates long, flagellate, except minute setae ad 3, setae ad 1 and ad 2 longer than anal setae. Leg setation complete, setae d of femora I large, curved interiorly, located near anterior margin of article.

Remark — Nominative species Austrophthiracarus aoki (Mahunka, 1983) has genital setae arranged in two rows, setae g 6-9 are remote from paraxial margin and therefore the species belongs to Austrophthiracarus. Austrophthiracarus aokii malagasensis has the genital setae arranged in one row and therefore belongs to the genus Notophthiracarus. Moreover, as emphasized Mahunka (2010), it has minute, erect rostral setae (versus long, curved and procumbent) and different shape of sigillar fields.

Locality in Madagascar (eastern part): Mahunka 2010.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus medius Niedbala et Starý, 2016

(Figure 76)

Figure 76. Notophthiracarus medius Niedbala et Starý, 2016 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – fragment of surface of median part of prodorsum; C – fragment of surface of posterior part of prodorsum; D – prodorsum, lateral view; E – opisthosoma, lateral view; F – fragment of surface of "Notogaster"; G – mentum of subcapitulum; H – left genitoaggenital plate; I – left side of anoadanal plate; J – anterior part of paraxial margin of right genitoaggenital plate; K – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 232, width 162, height 86; notogaster: length 460, width 323, height 288.

Species of medium size; colour brown; surface of prodorsum reticulate but in posterior part irregular small alveoles connected with feeble lines. Prodorsum with lateral carinae distinct, long; sigillar fields poorly marked, median longer than laterals; sensilli long, baciliform, without head, curved, covered with small spines, similar to notogastral setae; interlamellar setae robust, erect, covered with distinct spines in distal half, similar to notogastral setae; lamellar setae thick, short; rostral setae spiniform, rough; in>ss>ro>ex>le. Surface of notogaster covered with image of reticulation of small alveolae connected with feeble lines; setae robust, baciliform of medium length (c 1<c 1 -d 1), distal half covered with small spines; setae c 1 and c 3 situated close to anterior margin, setae c 2 remote far from margin; vestigial setae f1 not visible; vestigial setae f 2 and two pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present but hardly perceptible. Ventral region; setae h of subcapitular mentum shorter than distance between them; surface of genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates reticulated; formula of minute genital setae: 5: 4; anoadanal plates each with 5 setae, 2 thinner anal and 3 thicker adanal setae, setae ad 1 and ad 2 longest. Legs; setation complete; setae d on femora I bifurcate and situated at distal end of article.

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2016b.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus micidus Niedbala et Starý, 2015

(Figure 77)

Figure 77. Notophthiracarus micidus Niedbala et Starý, 2015 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 429, width 298, height 177; notogaster: length 768, width 283, height 303.

Relatively large-sized species; colour light brown; surface of body punctate. Prodorsum with distinct lateral carinae; sigillar fields long and very narrow; posterior furrows absent; sensilli short, crescent-like, rough; other setae long, fine, attenuate, procumbent; rostral setae located near each other; in>ss>ro>le>ex. Notogaster; only notogastral setae c 1, d 1 and c 3 relatively longer (c 1<c 1-d 1), fine and attenuate, other notogastral setae minute; setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior margin of notogaster, setae c 3 located near the notogastral margin; vestigial setae f 1 situated slightly posterior of setae h 1; all 4 pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip, ips present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; genitoaggenital plates with formula of genital setae: 4: 5; genital setae g 6-8 remote from paraxial border of plate; left genitoaggenital plate with two aggenital setae (one more seta is probably the abnormal case); anoadanal plates with long and attenuate adanal setae ad 1, adanal setae ad 3 shorter, but anal setae and adanal setae ad 2 minute. Chaetome of legs complete; setae d of femora I located at distal end of article.

Localities in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2015b.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus obliquus Niedbala et Starý, 2015

(Figure 78)

Figure 78. Notophthiracarus obliquus Niedbala et Starý, 2015 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates; F – trochanter and femur of leg I; G – tibia of leg IV.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 333, width 212, height 126; notogaster: length 555, width 404, height 399.

Medium-sized species; colour yellow; surface of body punctate. Prodorsum with lateral carinae short; sigillar fields well developed, median slightly longer than lateral ones; posterior furrows absent; sensilli short, club-like, rounded distally, smooth; other setae filiform, attenuate, procumbent, their mutual length in>ro>ex>le. Notogaster with filiform and attenuate setae, majority of them long (c 1>c 1-d 1), with exception minute setae c 3, cp, ps 4; setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior margin of notogaster, setae c 3 near of notogastral margin; vestigial setae f 1 situated posterior of setae h 1; all 4 pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip and ips present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum shorter than distance between them; formula of genital setae: 4: 5; 5 pairs of setae in longitudinal row in progenital position; genital setae g 6-9 located slightly obliquely; anoadanal plates each with 5 setae, anal setae distanced from each other, adanal setae ad 1 situated in lateral and anterior position from anal setae an 1, adanal setae ad 2 also in lateral and anterior position of anal setae an 2; only adanal setae ad 1 long, filiform and attenuate, other setae minute. Leg formula of setae and solenidia of "complete type"; setae d on femora I long, ciliate and situated at distal end of article.

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2015b.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus pandanensis Niedbala et Starý, 2014

(Figure 79)

Figure 79. Notophthiracarus pandanensis Niedbala et Starý, 2014 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – sensillus; D – opisthosoma, lateral view; E – mentum of subcapitulum; F – right genitoaggenital plate; G – left anoadanal plate; H – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 465, width 328, height 197; notogaster: length 919, width 596, height 646.

Large-sized species; colour brown; surface of body well sclerotized, covered with dense concavities. Prodorsum with powerful median crista; lateral carinae distinct and below it is situated the second, short carinae; posterior furrows present; sigillar fields long and narrow, median longer than laterals; sensilli short, slightly baciliform, covered at distal end with small cilia but only at one side; other setae very short, needle-like, rough, only exobothridial setae filiform, smooth; ss>ex>ro>in>le. Notogaster with spiniform, of medium length (c 1/c 1-d 1=0.9) setae, lateral setae shorter than dorsal; all setae covered sparsely with fine cilia; setae c 1 and c 3 situated near the anterior margin, setae c 2 considerably remote from margin; vestigial setae f 1 slightly posteriorly of h 1; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; seta h of mentum slightly longer than distance between them; arrangement of genital setae: 6: 3; anoadanal plates each with 5 spiniform, rough setae, adanal setae ad 1 and ad 2 longer than anal setae, setae ad 3 the shortest. Legs chaetome of "complete type"; setae d on femora slightly remote from distal end of article.

Localities in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2014c.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus parapaulianus Niedbala et Starý, 2016

(Figure 80)

Figure 80. Notophthiracarus parapaulianus Niedbala et Starý, 2016 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – right genitoaggenital plate; F – right anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurement of holotype: prodorsum: length 159, width 114, height 61; notogaster: length 272, width 197, height 182.

Small-sized species; colour brownish; body integument distinctly foveolate. Prodorsum with lateral carinae and posterior furrows well developed; sigillar fields feeble, median longer than laterals; sensilli very long needleform, sickle-shaped, rough, bent posteriorly; interlamellar and rostral setae semi-erect, short, thick covered with small spines in distal half, obtuse distally similar to notogastral setae; lamellar setae minute, spiniform; exobothridial setae vestigial; ss>in>ro>le. Notogaster with rigid, relatively short (c 1=c 1-d 1) setae, obtuse distally, covered with small setae in distal half; setae c 1 close to anterior margin, setae c 2 and c 3 remote from margin, setae c 2 more than c 3; vestigial setae f 1 situated posteriorly of h 1 setae; lyrifissures invisible. Ventral region; setae h of mentum considerably shorter than distance between them; arrangement of genital setae: 5: 4; anoadanal plates with 5 pairs of setae, setae ad 2 longest and also obtuse and ciliate distally as notogastral setae, other setae pointed, rough. Chaetome of legs complete; setae d on femora I small and slightly remote from distal end of article; setae l" situated in the middle part of article.

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2016a.

Distribution — Madagascar only, endemic.

Notophthiracarus parareductus (Mahunka, 1992)

(Figure 81)

Hoplophorella reducta Mahunka, 1988

Notophthiracarus parareductus: Niedbala 2001

Figure 81. Notophthiracarus parareductus (Mahunka, 1992) (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – right genitoaggenital plate; F – left anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 303, width 212, height 121, setae: ss 35, in 13, le 10, ro 30, ex 13; notogaster: length 575, width and height 394, setae: c 1 152, d 1 101, h 1 and ps 1 116; genitoaggenital plate 454x96, anoadanal plate 202x101. Measurements of holotype after Mahunka (1988): length of prodorsum: 292; notogaster: length 569, height 376.

Medium-sized species; colour brown, surface of body feebly foveolate, foveoles visible especially on the borders. Prodorsum without lateral carinae and posterior furrows; sigillar fields feebly visible; sensilli short with rounded, smooth head; setae very short, spiniform, ro the longest. Notogaster with setae rather long (c 1=c 1-d 1), thick, rigid, covered with small spines in whole length, obtuse distally, setae d 1, d 2, e 2, h 2, h 3 and ps 4 slightly shorter than others; setae c 3 located near anterior border, c 1 slightly remote and c 2 far from border, setae c 2 far from border; vestigial setae f 2 located between setae h 2 and h 3; vestigial setae f 1 not visible; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum considerably shorter than distance between them; arrangement of genital setae is 6: 3; setae of anoadanal different in size; 2 pairs of anal setae long but attenuate, rough, not very similar to notogastral setae; all 3 pairs of adanal setae minute. Chaetome of legs of incomplete, setae v' on femora I is absent; setae d forked distally and located in middle of article.

Species reported only from Reunion: Mahunka 1988a, Niedbala 2001, 2010, Niedbala & Starý 2015c.

Distribution — Afrotropical, Reunion only, endemic.

Notophthiracarus parasomalicus Niedbala, 2001

(Fig 82)

Figure 82. Notophthiracarus parasomalicus Niedbala, 2001. A-F (holotype); G-I (specimen from MAG-136): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – right genitoaggenital plate; E – right anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I; G – prodorsum, dorsal view; H – prodorsum, lateral view; I – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 228, width 164, height 96; notogaster: length 424, width 293, height 273. Measurements of specimen from sample MAG-136: prodorsum: length 248, width 172, height 101; "Notogaster": length 475, width 313, height 323.

Small-sized species; colour light brown; surface of body strongly foveolate. Prodorsum with lateral carinae distinct, sigillar fields and posterior furrows invisible because of strong sculpture; sensilli long with thin pedicel and club-like head; interlamellar setae strong, long, erect, covered with small spines in distal half, similar to notogastral setae; rostral setae spiniform, rough; lamellar and exobothridial setae minute; in>ss>ro>ex>le. Notogaster with robust, rather short setae (c 1<c 1<d 1) covered with small spines in distal half; setae c 1 and c 3 situated at anterior margin, setae c 2 considerably remote from margin; vestigial setae f 1 invisible; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; seta h of mentum shorter than distance between them; arrangement of genital setae is 5: 4; setae of anoadanal plates rough; ad 2>ad 1>an>ad 3. Chaetome of legs of "incomplete type", setae l on genua IV absent; setae d on femora almost straight, remote from distal end of article.

Remarks — Specimens from sample MAG-136 have sensilli with fusiform head covered with some spines, vestigial exobothridial setae and setae l on genu IV are present (versus club-like head of sensilli and absence of setae l on genua IV in holotype). All other morphological characters are the same. Notophthiracarus parasomalicus differs from two similar species: N. pseudosomalicus and N. quasisomalicus by the presence of rounded heads of sensilli (versus heads pointed distally), almost straight setae d of femora I (versus, curved or bifurcate).

Localities in Madagascar (northern and central parts): Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus parasummersi Niedbala, 2001

(Figure 83)

Figure 83. Notophthiracarus parasummersi Niedbala, 2001 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – left genitoaggenital plate; E – left anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 303, width 252, height 151; notogaster: length 646, width and height 434.

Medium-sized species; colour brown, surface of body, especially notogaster strongly foveolate. Prodorsum with distinct lateral carinae, fields invisible because strong sculpture, sensilli fairly long with thin pedicel and club-like head; interlamellar setae very long, robust, rough, erect; lamellar setae vestigial, rostral setae spiniform, erect, rough; exobothridial setae minute; in>ro>ss>ex. Notogaster with fairly long setae (c 1>c 1-d 1), robust, rigid, rough with obtuse distal end; setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior border, setae c 3 near border; vestigial setae invisible because of strong sculpture; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum shorter than distance between them; formula of genital setae: 5: 4; setae of anoadanal plates long, robust; ad 2>ad 1>an>ad 3. Formula of leg setae and solenidia of complete type; setae d of femora at distal end of article.

Locality in Madagascar (central part): Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus parilloi Niedbala, 2001

(Figure 84)

Figure 84. Notophthiracarus parilloi Niedbala, 2001 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – left genitoaggenital plate; E – left anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 606, width 424, height 222; notogaster: length 1212, width 889, height 909.

Large-sized species; colour yellow, surface of body punctate. Prodorsum with distinct median crista, lateral carinae present; sigillar field feeble, median field narrow; posterior furrows absent; sensilli fairly long, thin, blade-like, pointed distally; interlamellar and lamellar setae rigid, semi-erect, rough, rostral setae spiniform; exobothridial setae fairly long; in>ss>le>ro>ex. Notogaster with rigid, short (c 1<c 1-d 1), rough setae; setae of row c remote from anterior border, especially c 1 and c 2; c 2 more than c 1; vestigial setae f 1 slightly posterior of h 1 setae; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; formula of genital setae: 4: 5; setae of anoadanal plates short, rough, similar in length. Chaetome of legs complete, setae d of femora slightly remote from distal end of article.

Localities in Madagascar (northern part): Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus (?) paulianus (Balogh, 1962)

(Figure 85)

Hoplophorella pauliani Balogh 1962

Notophthiracarus (?) paulianus: Niedbala 2001

Figure 85. Notophthiracarus (?) paulianus (Balogh, 1962) (after Balogh 1962): A – prodorsum, posterior view; B – lateral view of body.

Diagnosis — Prodorsum with sickle-shaped sensilli; interlamellar setae short, thick, erect, covered with small spines; rostral setae spiniform, erect; lamellar setae minute. Notogaster with short (c l<c l-d l), thick setae, covered with small spines; setae c 1-3 remote from anterior margin, setae c 2 and c 3 more than setae c 1.

Remark — The description is very short and incomplete, and the generic status uncertain. This species is similar to Notophthiracarus echinus (Balogh, 1962).

Locality in Madagascar (central part): Balogh 1962, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus procerus Niedbala, 2001

(Figure 86)

Figure 86. Notophthiracarus procerus Niedbala, 2001 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – left genitoaggenital plate; E – right anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 240, width 278, height 104; notogaster: length 475, width 283.

Medium-sized species; colour brick-red; surface of body strongly foveolate. Prodorsum with distinct lateral carinae; fields invisible because of strong sculpture, posterior furrows absent; sensilli long, thin, curved, sickle-shaped, rough; interlamellar setae long, rigid, erect, covered with small spines in distal half; rostral setae long, very distant each from another, bent inwards, rough; ss>in>ro; lamellar and exobothridial setae vestigial. "Notogaster" with short setae (c 1<c 1-d 1), covered with distinct, small spines; setae c 1 near anterior border, setae c 3 remote from border, setae c 2 far from border; vestigial setae f 1 slightly posterior of setae h l; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; formula of genital setae: 5: 4; setae of anoadanal plates long, rough, ad 2>ad 1>an>ad 3. Chaetome of legs complete; setae d of femora I at distal end, forked distally.

Localities in Madagascar (northern part): Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus pseudosomalicus Mahunka, 2010

(Figure 87)

Figure 87. Notophthiracarus pseudosomalicus Mahunka, 2010 (paratype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – sensillus; C – lateral view of body; D – genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype: prodorsum: length 190, width 134, height 81, setae: ss 51, in 48, ro 23, le 6, ex 15; notogaster: length 333, width 227, height 207, setae: c 1 43, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.6, h 1 and ps 1 30; genitoaggenital plate 81x58; anoadanal plate 101x58.

Small-sized species; colour light brown; surface of prodorsum with large foveolae, of notogaster with small, deep foveolae ordered in irregular longitudinal furrows. Prodorsum with distinct lateral carinae; sigillar fields well visible, median narrow, longer than laterals; posterior furrows absent; sensilli long, with thin peduncule longer than phylliform, asymmetrical, rough head; interlamellar setae rigid, erect, covered with small spines in distal half; rostral setae setiform, straight, smooth; lamellar and exobothridial setae minute; ss>in>ro>ex>le. Notogaster with short setae (c 1<c 1-d 1), obtuse, covered with distinct, small spines; setae c 1 and c 3 at anterior border, setae c 2 far from border; vestigial setae f 1 slightly posterior of setae h l; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; formula of genital setae: 5: 4; setae of anoadanal plates ad 1 and ad 2 rough, longer than other setae, anal setae thin, smooth, longer than thin, smooth ad 3 setae; ad 2>ad 1>an>ad 3. Formula of leg setae and solenidia complete; setae d of femora I remote from distal end, forked distally.

Remark — Notophthiracarus pseudosomalicus differs from two similar species: N. parasomalicus and N. quasisomalicus by the presence of deep foveolae on the surface of notogaster ordered in irregular longitudinal furrows and bifurcate setae d of femora of leg I.

Locality in Madagascar (eastern part): Mahunka 2010.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus puylaerti Niedbala, 2001

(Figure 88)

Figure 88. Notophthiracarus puyalerti Niedbala, 2001 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – left paraxial fragment of genitoaggenital plate; E – right anoadanal plate, F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 172, width 124, height 72; notogaster: length 338, width 207, height 202.

Small-sized species; colour light brown; ornamentation of integument densely and finely punctate. Prodorsum with weak median crista and short lateral carinae; fields distinct, median longer than lateral ones; posterior furrows present; bothridia covered by unusual, small, triangular scales; sensilli moderately long, with thin stalk and rounded head; setae spiniform, except vestigial exobothridial setae; ss>ro>in>le. Notogaster with short (c 1/c 1-d 1=0,26), spiniform, rough setae; setae c 1 remote from anterior border, setae c 3 positioned further posteriorly, setae c 2 furthest; vestigial setae f 1 and lyrifissures absent. Ventral region; formula of genital setae: 4: 5, setae g 6 near anterior group of g 1-5, g 7 at least twice its length from g 8, but setae g 8 and g 9 located near to each other, in about same distance as length of g 8; formula of anal and adanal setae: 2: 3; setae are spiniform and equal in length. Chaetome of solenidia and setae of "incomplete type". Setae v' on femora I absent, setae d on femora I strong and inserted near the middle of article.

Locality in Madagascar: Mahunka 2002.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Congo and Madagascar.

Notophthiracarus quasisimilis Niedbala et Starý, 2015

(Figure 89)

Figure 89. Notophthiracarus quasisimilis Niedbala et Starý, 2015 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – "Notogaster", lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – left genitoaggenital plate; F – left anoadanal plate; G – left anoadanal plate, lateral view; H – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 333, width 212, height 126; notogaster: length 555, width 404, height 399.

Medium-sized species; colour yellow; surface of body covered with strong sculpture of irregular, deep foveoles. Prodorsum with prominent crested median crista; lateral carinae and posterior furrows absent; median sigillar field broad anteriorly and longer than lateral fields; sensilli long with thin pedicel and club-like head covered with small spines; interlamellar setae long, robust, erect, covered with dense spines in distal half; lamellar and exobothridial setae minute; rostral setae spiniform, rough, directed inward; in>ss>ro>ex>le. Notogaster with medial, well framed flat field present, setae of medium size (c 1<c 1-d 1), robust as interlamellar setae, covered with spines in distal half, all dorsal setae situated below of median flat field; setae c 1 slightly remote from anterior margin of notogaster, setae c 3 situated almost at notogastral border, setae c 2 far from notogastral border; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present; vestigial setae not visible because strong sculpture. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; formula of minute, genital setae: 5: 4; anoadanal plates with 5 pairs of rough setae, adanal setae ad 2 the longest and the thickest, obtuse and bent distally, adanal setae ad 1 longer than anal setae, adanal setae ad 3 minute. Chaetome of complete type; setae d on femora I slightly remote from distal end of article.

Localities in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2015b.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus quasisomalicus Niedbala et Starý, 2014

(Figure 90)

Figure 90. Notophthiracarus quasisomalicus Niedbala et Starý, 2014 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – sensillus; C – prodorsum, lateral view; D – opisthosoma, lateral view; E – mentum of subcapitulum; F – right genitoaggenital plate; G – right anoadanal plate; H – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 242, width 177, height 101; notogaster: length 470, width 308, height 278.

Medium-sized species; colour dark brown; surface of body covered with small, deep, distanced alveoles. Prodorsum with sigillar fields, median slightly trapezoid, laterals considerably shorter; sensilli long, with fusiform head covered with four small spines in distal half; interlamellar setae erect, rigid, covered with weak cilia, similar to notogastral setae; lamellar and rostral setae spiniform, roughened; exobothridial setae minute, smooth; ss>in>ro>le>ex. notogaster with rigid, thick setae covered with weak cilia in distal half; seta of row c 1-3 slightly remote from anterior border, setae c 2 situated far from border; vestigial setae f 1 located posteriorly of h 1 setae; between lyrifissures only ia and im present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum considerably shorter than distance between them; genitoaggenital plates with 9 pairs of genital setae with arrangement: 5: 4; anoadanal plates with 5 pairs of roughened setae, setae ad 3 slightly shorter than anal setae, setae ad 1 and ad 2 longer and thicker, adanal setae ad 2 situated near paraxial margin of plates. Formulae of leg setae and solenidia of "complete type"; setae d of femora I short, thick, curved, slightly remote from distal end of article.

Remark — Notophthiracarus quasisomalicus differs from similar N. pseudosomalicus and N. parasomalicus by possessing long sensilli with fusiform head covered with four small spines in distal half (versus smooth heads of sensilli or covered with small cilia), longer notogastral setae and setae d of femora I short, thick, curved (versus almost straight or bifurcate distally).

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2014c.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus rafalskii Niedbala, 1997

(Figure 91)

Notophthiracarus rafalskii: Niedbala 2001

Figure 91. Notophthiracarus rafalskii Niedbala, 1997 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – left genitoaggenital plate; E – left anoadanal plate.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 278, width 177, height 131; notogaster: length 583, width 185, height 349.

Medium-sized species; colour yellow; body surface covered with strong concavities, except anoadanal plates. Prodorsum with powerful median crista; lateral carinae absent; fields weakly visible; posterior furrows distinct; sensilli long, gradually thickening, without well separated head, covered with distinct spines in distal half; other setae fine, spiniform, short, rostral setae remote from each other, ss>ex>in>le>ro. Notogaster with very short (c 1<1/4c 1-d 1), fine, spiniform, setae; setae c 1 situated at anterior margin, setae c 3 near, setae c 2 remote from margin; vestigial setae invisible; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; arrangement of minute genital setae: 5: 4; anoadanal plates each with 5 also minute setae, setae ad 1 and ad 2 close to each other and close to paraxial margin of plates. Chaetome of "complete type"; setae d on femora I situated on distal end of article.

Localities in Madagascar (eastern part): Niedbala 1997, 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus reticularis Niedbala et Starý, 2014

(Figure 92)

Figure 92. Notophthiracarus reticularis Niedbala et Starý, 2014 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 323, width 227, height 151; notogaster: length 596, width 465, height 394.

Rather large-sized species; colour brown; surface of body reticulated; and also covered with thick cerotegument. Prodorsum with powerful median crista; lateral carinae absent, posterior furrows distinct; sigillar fields narrow, median longer than laterals; sensilli long. bent with thin pedicel and fusiform head covered with small cilia; interlamellar setae long, strong, almost procumbent, covered with weak small setae in distal half, similar to notogastral setae; lamellar and rostral setae spiniform, rough; exobothridial setae minute; in>ss>le>ro>ex. Notogaster with long (c 1/c 1-d 1=0.9), strong, spiniform setae covered with small spines in distal half; setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior border, setae c 3 located near the border; lyrifissures and vestigial setae weakly visible because strong integument and thick layer of cerotegument. Ventral region; infracapitular setae h longer than distance between them; arrangement of genital setae: 5: 4; anoadanal plates each with 5 rough setae, all adanal setae situated near the paraxial border, setae ad 2 the longest and thickest, setae ad 3 the shortest. Legs setation of "complete type"; setae d on femora I bifurcate and located at distal end of article.

Localities in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2014c.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus similis Niedbala, 2001

(Figure 93)

Figure 93. Notophthiracarus similis Niedbala, 2001 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – left genitoaggenital plate; E – left anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 273, width 197, height 126; notogaster: length 515, width 373, height 368.

Medium-sized species; colour brown, surface of body, especially notogaster, strongly foveolate. Prodorsum with weak median crista; fields indistinct but median longer than laterals; lateral carinae short; posterior furrows absent; sensilli long with thin pedicel and club-like head covered with small spines; interlamellar setae long, robust, erect, covered with dense spines in distal half; rostral setae spiniform, short, rough with obtuse distal end, lamellar and exobothridial setae minute; in>ss>ro>le>ex. Notogaster with moderate setae (c 1<c 1-d 1), robust, covered with dense spines in distal half; setae c 1 and c 3 near anterior border, setae c 2 far from border; vestigial setae f 1 posterior of h l; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum shorter than distance between them; formula of genital setae 5: 4; setae of anoadanal plates long, setae ad 2 the longest, thick, obtuse and bent distally, setae ad 3 bent, other setae spiniform, rough, ad 2>ad l>an>ad 3. Chaetome of legs of complete type; setae d of femora I slightly remote from distal end.

Localities in Madagascar (northern and central parts): Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus summersi Niedbala 2001

(Figure 94)

Figure 94. Notophthiracarus summersi Niedbala, 2001 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – left genitoaggenital plate; E – left anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 384, width 267, height 141; notogaster: length 747, width 278, height 505.

Rather large-sized species; colour brown, surface of body covered with small foveoles. Prodorsum with fields weakly visible; lateral carinae distinct; posterior furrows absent; sensilli long, baciliform, rough; interlamellar setae very long, rigid, erect, attenuate, rough; lamellar setae very short, thick; rostral setae erect, spinifom, rough; in>ss>ro>ex>le. Notogaster with rough and attenuate setae unequal in length, setae c 1, c 2, cp, h 1, ps 1, ps 2 longer than other setae; setae c 1 and c 3 slightly remote from anterior margin, setae c 2 far from margin; vestigial setae f 1 posterior of h 1 setae; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; formula of genital setae 5: 4; setae of anadanal plates long, attenuate, rough, ad 2>ad 1>an>ad 3. Chaetome of legs of complete type; setae d of femora I slightly remote from distal end.

Localities in Madagascar (northern and central-eastern parts): Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Notophthiracarus zebrus (Balogh, 1962)

(Figure 95)

Hoplophorella zebra Balogh 1962

Notophthiracarus zebra: Mahunka 2009a

Notophthiracarus zebrus: Niedbala 2001

Figure 95. Notophthiracarus zebrus (Balogh, 1962) (specimen from Madagascar (Niedbala 2001): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – surface of notogaster; E – right genitoaggenital plate; F – right anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of the specimen from Madagascar (Niedbala 2001): prodorsum: length 253, width 192, height 88.5; notogaster: length 515, width 384, height 313.

Medium-sized species; colour brown, body covered by strong integument, surface of prodorsum covered with polygonal, mosaic ornamentation anterior of interlamellar setae, but under lateral carinae surface is smooth; surface of the notogaster is ornamented by parallel lines, in the form of fingerprint-like pattern, among the parallel lines there are small alveoles. Prodorsum with median field longer than lateral ones; posterior furrows present; lateral carinae long; sensilli setiform, long, thin, rough, slightly sickle-shaped; interlamellar setae rod-shaped, long, erect, covered with small spines in distal half, similar to notogastral setae; rostral setae relatively long, rough; lamellar setae minute, spiniform; exobothridial setae fine; ss>in>ro>ex>le. Notogaster with setae of medium length (c 1<c 1-d 1), stout, covered with small spines in distal half, pointed distally; setae c 1 and c 3 remote from anterior margin, setae c 2 far from margin; vestigial setae f 1 not visible; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; formula of genital setae: 5: 4; 5 pairs of anal and adanal setae present, ad 1>ad 2>an>ad 3. Chaetome of legs complete; setae d on femora I furcate and located on the distal end of article.

Locality in Madagascar (central part): Balogh 1962, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Atropacarus Ewing, 1917

Body integumental surface covered with concavities. Posterior furrows of prodorsum present, lamellar setae minute (length ratio of lamellar setae/prodorsum < 0.2). Ventral region; genital setae in a row or nearly so, distance between setae g 6 and g 5 longer than that between g 5 and g 4; setae ad 1 always close to paraxial margin, in a row with anal setae; setae ad 2 remote from the paraxial margin or close to it. Legs; setae v' on femora I minute, length ratio v"/v'<2.2.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan

subgenus – Hoplophorella Berlese, 1923

15 pairs of notogastral setae, as a rule only two pairs of lyrifissures, ia and im present. Ventral region; nine pairs of genital setae arranged in a single row and five pairs of anal and adanal setae present; setae ad 2 remote from the paraxial margin.

Distribution — Pantropical, uncommon in northern hemisphere.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) andrei (Balogh, 1958)

(Figure 96)

Steganacarus andrei Balogh 1958

Hoplophorella andrei Balogh 1958: Mahunka 1984

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) andrei: Liu & OConnor 2015

Figure 96. Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) andrei (Balogh, 1958) (specimen from MAG-265): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – opisthosoma, dorsal view; E – mentum of subcapitulum; F – right genitoaggenital plate; G – right anoadanal plate; H – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of one specimen from MAG-265: length of prodorsum: prodorsum: length 247, width 162, height 157, setae: sensillus 104, interlamellar 40, lamellar 13, rostral 43; notogaster: length 495, width 278, height 303, setae: c 1 43, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.4, h 1 51, ps 1 43; genitoaggenital plate 142x76, anoadanal plate 152x101.

Medium-sized species; colour brown, surface of body covered with distinct, large, slightly distanced alveoles. Prodorsum with distinct median crista; posterior furrows distinct; sigillar fields indistinct, median field bifurcate with small incision, longer than laterals; lateral carinae reaching the sinus; sensilli sickle-shaped, long, narrow, inflated in the distal half, covered with thin spines; interlamellar setae lanceolate, rough; lamellar and exobothridial setae spiniform, minute; rostral setae thick, directed inwards, rough; ss>in>ro>le. Notogaster with anterior collar and median band; setae foliate, short (c 1<c 1-d 1) covered with small spines; vestigial setae f 1 posteriorly to h 1 setae. Ventral region; setae h of mentum shorter than distance between them; formula of genital setae: 6: 3; anoadanal plate with setae ad 2 foliate covered with small spines, remaining setae short, spiniform, setae ad 3 somewhat shorter than others. Chaetome of legs reduced, setae a' on tarsi I absent; setae d of femora I slightly remote from distal end.

Remark — Specimens from locality: MAG-265 has exobothridial setae vestigial.

Comparison — Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) andrei (Balogh, 1958) was wrongly synonymized with A. (H.) vitrinus (Berlese, 1913) by Niedbala (2000).

Mahunka (1984) clearly indicates the presence of a median band on notogaster of A. (H.) andrei. Liu & OConnor (2015) showed differences between the two species but the essential difference is the presence of the median band in dorsal part of notogaster in A. (H.) andrei. Other differences between A.(H.) andrei and A.(H.) vitrinus: surface of body covered with smaller alveoles in A.(H.) vitrinus; in A.(H.) andrei setae c 1 are more remote from anterior border than c 2, and contrary in A.(H.) vitrinus setae c 2 are more remote than setae c 1.

Locality in Seychelles: Niedbala 2008a.

Distribution — Pantropical (?).

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) balazsi (Mahunka, 1983)

(Figure 97)

Hoplophorella balazsi Mahunka, 1983

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) balazsi: Niedbala 2001

Figure 97. Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) balazsi (Mahunka, 1983) (holotype): A – dorsal view of body; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 139, width 114, height 68, setae: ss 68, in 10, le 7, ro 13; notogaster: length 311, width 177, height 190, setae: c 1 28, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.5, h 1 and ps 1 25; genitoaggenital plate 56x51, anoadanal plate 68x43.

Small-sized species; colour yellow. Prodorsum with distinct median crista; lateral carinae and posterior furrows absent; sigillar fields indistinct, narrow, median longer than laterals; sensilli very long, ensiform, pointed distally; other setae minute, only exobothridial ones vestigial. Notogaster covered with few tubercles and cavities, anteriorly with sharp crest and concavity; setae short (c 1<c 1-d 1), flagellate, some of them arising on the tubercules; setae c 1-3 located on crest. Ventral region; setae h of mentum equal as distance between them; arrangement of genital setae: 5: 4; setae of anoadanal plates minute, setae ad 2 located near paraxial margin, setae ad 3 remote from margin. Chaetome of legs complete; setae d on femora I straight and situated almost at distal end of article.

Locality in Madagascar (northern part): Mahunka 1983b, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) cucullatus (Ewing, 1909)

(Figure 98)

Hoplophorella cucullatum Ewing, 1909

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) cucullatus: Niedbala 2001

Figure 98. Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) cucullatus (Ewing, 1909) (specimen from Canada): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – subcapitulum; E – left genitoaggenital plate; F – left anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of specimen from Canada: prodorsum 171-210, notogaster 308-459.

Rather small-sized species; colour yellowish, surface with concavities. Prodorsum with distinct median crista, median sigillar field fairly broad, with an incision between rostral setae, lateral fields shorter; posterior furrows present, lateral carinae short reaching the sinus; sensilli long, with thin pedicel, sickle-shaped, long fusiform heads covered with spines; other setae short, spiniform, of similar size. Notogaster with leaf-shaped, short setae, c 1<c 1-d 1, setae c 1-3 located on anterior collar; vestigial setae f 1 posteriorly of setae h 1. Ventral region; h<h-h; formula for genital setae is 7: 2; anoadanal plates with setae ad 2 of foliate form, the remaining setae smooth, spiniform, setae ad 3 the shortest. Chaetome of legs reduced; setae s on tarsi I and setae l' on genua IV are missing.

Species new for MAG.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) distinctus Niedbala et Starý, 2014

(Figure 99)

Figure 99. Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) distinctus Niedbala et Starý, 2014 (holotype and paratype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, dorsal view (paratype); C – prodorsum, lateral view; D – opisthosoma, lateral view; E – dorsal view of body; F – mentum of subcapitulum; G – right genitoaggenital plate; H – anterior part of right genitoaggenital plate; I – left anoadanal plate; J – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 240, width 159, height 126; notogaster: length 505, width 288, height 328.

Medium-sized species; colour dark brown; surface of body foveolate and well sclerotized. Prodorsum with remarkable dorsal crista; lateral carinae short but distinct; sigillar fields weakly marked, median one narrow in proximal part and broadened in distal part under rostral setae, longer than laterals; posterior furrows present; sensilli long with thin stalk and spindle shaped head, densely spinose (ca 20 cilia) at one side; interlamellar, lamellar and rostral setae needle-like, rough, exobothridial setae filiform, the shortest; ss>in>ro>le>ex. Notogaster with a pair of longitudinal, rolled dorsal cristae and posteriorly with two pairs of strong tubercules; setae fine, flagelliform, setae c 2, d 2 and e 2 situated at unusual dorsal position, setae c 1 and c 3 positioned near anterior border, setae c 2 remote from border, setae considerably further posterior than setae c 1 and c 3, vestigial setae f 1 not discernible because of strong microsculpture. Ventral region; setae h of mentum vestigial; formula of genital setae: 4: 5, setae of anoadanal plates short and obtuse, setae ad 2 the longest, setae ad 3 the shortest. Leg chaetome complete, setae d of femora I bent distally and slightly remote from distal end of article.

Localities in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2014a.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) hamatus (Ewing, 1909)

(Figure 100)

Hoploderma hamatum Ewing 1909

Hoplophorella cucullata floridae Jacot 1933 syn. by Niedbala 2001

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) floridus: Niedbala 2001

Phthiracarus (Hoplophthiracarus) cucullatus (Ew.) var. obsoletior Berlese 1923 syn. by Niedbala 2001

Hoplophorella cuneiseta Mahunka 1988 syn. by Niedbala 2000

Hoplophorella glauca Hammer 1972 syn. by Niedbala 2000

Hoplophorella schauenbergi Mahunka 1978 syn. by Niedbala 2000

Hoplophorella ligulifera Mahunka 1987: Niedbala 2001

Hoplophorela perisi Subias et Sarkar 1984 syn. by Niedbala 1986

Hoplophorella spatulata Parry 1980 syn. by Niedbala 2000

Figure 100. Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) hamatus (Ewing, 1909) (cotype of Hoplophorella cucullata floridae synonym of A.(H.) hamatus): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements: prodorsum 152-209, notogaster 293-424 (Niedbala 2011).

Rather small-sized species; colour yellow, surface with concavities. Prodorsum with median crista; sigillar fields longer than laterals and enlarging towards rostral setae; lateral carinae not reaching sinus; sensilli long, narrow, sickle-shaped with long heads covered with thin spines; interlamellar setae short, slightly enlarged, rough, lamellar and rostral setae spiniform; ss>in>ro>le; exobothridial setae vestigial. Notogaster with spoon-shaped, short setae (c 1 <c 1-d 1); setae c 1 on anterior margin, with c 2 and c 3 further away; vestigial setae f 1 posteriorly of setae h 1. Ventral region; h<h-h; formula for genital setae is 6: 3; anoadanal plates with spoon-shaped setae ad 2, the remaining setae spiniform, ad 3 shorter than anal setae and ad 1. Leg setation reduced; setae s on tarsi I and setae l' on genua IV are missing.

Localities in Mauritius, Comoros and Seychelles: Mahunka 1988a, Niedbala 2001, 2008a and in Madagascar: Mahunka 2009b.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) lemurius (Mahunka, 1993)

(Figure 101A)

Hoplophorella lemuria Mahunka 1993

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) lemurius: Niedbala 2001

Figure 101. A, Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) lemurius (Mahunka, 1993) (paratype); B-G, Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) mahunkai Niedbala et Starý, 2013 (holotype): A – lateral view of body; B – prodorsum, dorsal view; C – prodorsum, lateral view; D – opisthosoma, lateral view; E – mentum of subcapitulum; F – genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype: prodorsum: length 142, height 58, ss 38; notogaster: length 263, height 131; length of genitoaggenital plate 56; length of anoadanal plate 71.

Small-sized species; colour pale yellow, surface covered with concavities. Prodorsum with low median crista; sigillar regions feebly visible, median narrow, longer than laterals; lateral carinae absent; posterior furrows feeble; sensilli long, asymmetrically dilated, covered with small spines laterally, other setae fine, very short, lamellar setae minute, rostral setae straight; ss>in>ro>ex>le. Notogaster with weak anterior hood, behind it a deep median hollow; setae fine, very short, c 1/c 1-d 1<0.2; setae c 1-3 situated near anterior border; only vestigial setae f 2 visible; lyrifissures invisible. Ventral region; arrangement of genital setae: 5: 4; anoadanal plates with minute setae, setae ad 2 situated near anal setae, between setae an 1 and an 2, setae ad 3 remote from paraxial margin. Chaetome of legs of "complete type"; setae d of femora I situated at distal end of article.

Locality in Madagascar (eastern part): Mahunka 1993, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) mahunkai Niedbala et Starý, 2013

(Figure 101B-G, 102)

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) othneios Niedbala et Starý, 2014 syn. nov.

Figure 102. Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) othneios Niedbala et Starý, 2014 (holotype). synonym of A. (H.) mahunkai Niedbala et Starý, 2013: A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – right genitoaggenital and anoadanal plates; F – trochanter and femur of leg I; G – seta d of femur I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 147, width 104, height 68; length 255, width 172, height 159. Measurements of holotype of A. (H.) othneios Niedbala et Starý, 2014 synonym of A. (H.) mahunkai: prodorsum: length 117, width 114, height 83; notogaster: length 338, width 227, height 207.

Specimens of this species are small; colour brown; surface of body covered with deep, round concavities. Prodorsum with long lateral carinae; median and lateral sigillar fields joined, median with deep incision; posterior furrows well marked; sensilli long, filiform whip-shaped, rough; interlamellar setae thick covered with dense cilia in distal half similar to aspergillum; lamellar and rostral setae strong, rough, rostral directed inward; exobothridial setae simple, smooth; ss>ro>in>le>ex. Notogaster with setae thick, short (c 1/c 1-d 1=0.5) densely covered with small spines in distal half, similar to aspergillum; setae c 2 and c 3 remote from anterior border, setae c 1 near the border; vestigial setae f 1 slightly anterior to setae h 1; 2 pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; arrangement of genital setae: 6: 3; anoadanal plates with 5 pairs of setae, anal setae long, filiform, smooth, setae ad 1 longer, rough, setae ad 2 the longest, setae ad 3 rather long but slightly shorter than anal setae covered sparsely with spines. Chaetome of legs of "incomplete type", setae of genua IV absent, setae d of femora I bifurcate and slightly remote from distal end of article.

Remark — Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) othneios Niedbala et Starý, 2014 is undoubtedly synonym of A. (H.) mahunkai.

Localities in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2013, 2014a.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) minisetosus (Mahunka, 1978)

(Figure 103)

Hoplophorella minisetosa Mahunka 1978

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) minisetosus: Niedbala 2001

Figure 103. Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) minisetosus (Mahunka, 1978) (specimen from Réunion): A – prodorsum, dorsal view, B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – left genitoaggenital plate; E – left anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of specimens of type series (Mahunka 1978a): prodorsum: length 292-321; notogaster: length 559-608; height 421-435. Measurements of specimen from La Réunion (Niedbala 1992): prodorsum: length 262, width 171, height 108; notogaster: length 470, width 288, height 318.

Medium-sized species; colour light brown, surface covered with small concavities. Prodorsum with median sigillar field long enlarged trapezially posteriorly of rostral setae, lateral fields very short; lateral carinae absent; sensilli short with clavate head; other setae short, simple, filiform, smooth, rostral longer than interlamellar and lamellar, exobothridial setae vestigial. Notogaster with minute, thin setae, most of them flagellately curved; setae c 1-3 remote from anterior border setae c 2 more than setae c 1 and c 3; vestigial setae f 1 posterior of h 1 setae. Ventral region; h>h-h; arrangement of genital setae: 6: 3; anoadanal plates with minute setae, setae ad 2 located near paraxial border. Chaetome of leg complete; setae d of femora I remote from distal end of article.

Localities in Reunion: Mahunka 1978a, 1988a, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, eastern part.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) multirugosus (Mahunka, 1978)

(Figs 104, 105)

Steganacarus multirugosus Mahunka 1978

Steganacarus cornutus Mahunka 1978 syn. by Niedbala 2001

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) multirugosus: Niedbala 2001

Figure 104. Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) multirugosus (Mahunka, 1978) (paratype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – right genitoaggenital plate; E – left anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Figure 105. Steganacarus cornutus Mahunka, 1978 (paratype) synonym of A. (H.) multirugosus (Mahunka, 1978): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – right genitoaggenital plate; E – right anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype (Niedbala 1992): prodorsum: length 358, width 242, height 136; notogaster: length 874, width 444, height 465; measurements of paratype of Steganacarus cornutus synonym of A. (H.) multirugosus (Niedbala 1994): prodorsum: length 293, width 187, height 126; notogaster: length 634, width 311, height 355.

Large-sized species; colour brown, surface covered with foveoles. Prodorsum with median sigillar field enlarged in distal end, lateral fields very short; lateral carinae absent; posterior furrows distinct; sensilli short, narrowly fusiform, rough; other setae short, simple, smooth, ss>in>ro>le; exobothridial setae vestigial. Notogaster with anterior triangular hood reaching above prodorsum; setae minute, smooth; setae c 1 and c 2 remote from anterior border, setae c 3 located on the margin; vestigial setae not visible. Ventral region; setae h of mentum slightly longer than distance between them; arrangement of genital setae: 4: 5 or 5: 4; anoadanal plates with minute setae. Chaetome of leg complete; setae d of femora I slightly remote from distal end of article.

Localities in Reunion and Mauritius: Mahunka 1978a, b, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, central and eastern parts.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) mwali (Mahunka, 1994)

(Figure 106)

Kakophthiracarus mwali Mahunka 1994

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) mwali: Niedbala 2001

Figure 106. Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) mwali (Mahunka, 1994) (paratype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – lateral view of body; C – mentum of subcapitulum; D – right genitoaggenital plate; E – left anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype: prodorsum: length 157, width 101, height 68; setae: ss 58, in and le 7, ro 10, ex 13; notogaster: length 282, width 187, height 192, setae: c1 and h1 33, c 2/c 2-d 1=0.5, 76, ps1 28; genitoaggenital plate 56x56, anoadanal plate 78x56.

Small-sized species; colour light brown; body surface covered with deep, rounded foveoles; cerotegument also present. Prodorsum with rounded rostrum and protruding median crista; fields weakly visible; lateral carinae absent; posterior furrows distinct; sensilli long, gradually broadened, rough; other setae minute; rostral setae located near each other; ss>ex>ro>in=le. Notogaster with thick anterior collar and small but distinct tubercles; setae short (c 1<c 1 -d 1), slightly flagellate setae c 1-3 situated on collar; setae c 2 and c 3 near each other; setae cp far posteriorly of collar; setae e 2 and h 2 near to each other; setae ps 1 and ps 2 located high relative to ps 3 and ps 4 setae; vestigial setae and lyrifissures invisible. Ventral region; setae h of mentum shorter than distance between them; genitoaggenital plates with formula of setae: 5: 4; anoadanal plates with 5 pairs of minute setae, adanal setae located near paraxial border. Formula of leg setae and solenidia complete; setae d on femora I long and situated almost at distal end of article.

Locality in Mohéli (Comoros): Mahunka 1994b, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Comoros, endemic.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) oblongus (Niedbala, 1983)

(Figs 107)

Hoplophorella oblonga Niedbala 1983

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) oblongus: Niedbala 2001

Figure 107. Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) oblongus (Niedbala, 1883) (specimen from MAG-277 – Niedbala and Starý 2016): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – sensillus; D – opisthosoma, lateral view; E – mentum of subcapitulum; F – right genitoaggenital plate; G – left anoadanal plate; H, trochanter and femur of leg I.

Redescription — Measurements of specimen from sample MAG-277: prodorsum: length 223, width 159, height 101; setae: ss 45, in 38, le 28, ro 35, ex 13; notogaster: length 404, width 273, height 257; setae: c 1 63, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.6, h 1 51, ps 1 45; genitoaggenital plate 88x81; anoadanal plate 159x86.

Medium-sized species; colour light brown; surface with small concavities. Prodorsum without lateral carinae; posterior furrows present; sigillar fields distinct, median longer than laterals, enlarging posteriorly of rostral setae; sensilli short, club-like, covered with small spines in distal end, slightly pointed from lateral view and rounded from dorsal view (but some specimens are rounded sensilli from lateral view); setae short, spiniform, rough (except of exobothridial setae); ss>in>ro>le>ex. Notogaster with setae rigid, erect, fairly short (c 1<c 1-d 1) covered with small spines in distal half; setae c 1 and c 3 remote from anterior margin, setae c 2 considerably further; vestigial setae f 1 anteriorly of h 1; two pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present in 8 specimens and four pairs of lyrifissures, ia, im, ip and ips in 4 specimens. Ventral region; setae h of mentum shorter than distance between them; genitoaggenital plates with 9 pairs of setae with formula: 6: 3; anoadanal plates with rough setae, ad 2 the longest, setae at paraxial border of plate thicker than setae ad 2 and ad 3. Legs. Formulae of setae and solenidia of "complete type". Setae d on femora I slightly remote from distal end of article.

Remark — Specimens from Madagascar differ from the Kenyan holotype by the absence of lateral carinae of prodorsum, absence of lyrifissures ip and ips in some specimens and thick setae at paraxial border of anoadanal plates.

Species new for MAG.

Distribution — Afrotropical, central and eastern parts.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) paralemurius Niedbala et Starý, 2016

(Figure 108)

Figure 108. A-K Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) paralemurius Niedbala et Starý, 2016 (holotype). J, K, paratype: A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – dorsal view of "Notogaster"; E – mentum of subcapitulum; F – left genitoaggenital plate; G – right anoadanal plate; H – left trochanter and femur of leg I; I – right trochanter and femur of leg I; J – prodorsum, lateral view; K – anterior part of opisthosoma, lateral view.

Diagnosis — Measurements of prodorsum: length 185, width 109, height 68; notogaster: length 329, width 233, height 100.

Small-sized species, colour brownish, integument foveolate. Prodorsum with low median crista; sigillar fields feebly visible, median narrow, longer than laterals; lateral carinae absent; posterior furrows feeble; sensilli long, asymmetrically dilated, covered with small spines laterally; other setae fine, very short, lamellar setae minute, rostral setae straight in holotype but curved in paratypes; ss>in>ro>le>ex. Notogaster with weak anterior hood, only in holotype but absent in paratypes; setae fine, smooth, procumbent, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.5 in holotype and 0.8 or 0.9 in paratypes; setae c 1-3 situated near anterior border, c 2 slightly remote from border in holotype and more remote in paratypes; vestigial setae and lyrifissures invisible.

Ventral region; setae h of mentum shorter than distance between them; arrangement of genital setae: 5: 4; anoadanal plates with minute setae, setae ad 2 situated near anal setae, between setae an 1 and an 2, setae ad 3 remote from paraxial margin. Chaetome of legs of "complete type" but I found in holotype the different location of setae d of femora I, at distal end of article on left femur and remote from article on right femur; both paratypes have arrangement of setae as in left femur of holotype.

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2016a.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) parastenos Niedbala et Starý, 2016

(Figure 109)

Figure 109. Atropacarus (Hplophorella) parastenos Niedbala et Starý, 2016 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – lateral view of body; C – seta c 1; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – right genitoaggenital plate; F – left anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Description — Measurements of holotype: length of prodorsum: prodorsum: length 190; notogaster: length 374, width 227, height 222.

Species of rather small size; colour yellow; surface of body covered with deep rounded foveoles but in anterior part of notogaster with irregular margin. Prodorsum with small median crista; lateral carinae short; posterior furrows distinct; sigillar fields feeble, median narrow and longer than laterals; sensilli rather short, with narrow pedicel and club-shaped, rounded distally head covered with small cilia; other setae minute, needleform, similar in length, ss>ro>in=ex>le. Notogaster with needleform, attenuate, smooth setae, majority of them characteristically bent, of medium size (c 1<c 1-d 1) setae; setae c 1 and c 3 slightly remote from anterior margin, setae c 2 far from margin; vestigial setae and lyrifissures not visible.

Ventral region; setae h of mentum considerably longer than distance between them; formula of minute genital setae: 6(4+2): 3; anoadanal plates with minute, needleform, similar in length setae; setae ad 3 situated in the middle of plates. Legs; formulae of setae and solenidia of "complete type"; setae d on femora I needleform and situated at distal end of article.

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2016b.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) singularis (Sellnick, 1959)

(Figure 110)

Hoplophthiracarus regalis Mahunka 1978 syn. by Niedbala 1994b

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) singularis: Niedbala 2001

Figure 110. Hoplophthiracarus regalis Mahunka, 1978 (paratype) synonym of A.(H.) singularis (Selnick, 1959): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – fragment of opisthosoma, lateral view; D – seta ps 1; E – right genitoaggenital plate; F – fragment of left genitoaggenital plate; G – right anoadanal plate; H – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements of paratype of Hoplophthiracarus regalis (Niedbala 2001): prodorsum: length 252, width 162, height 93; length of notogaster 530.

Medium sized species; colour brown, surface covered with small concavities. Prodorsum with short sigillar field, median field with incision between rostral setae; lateral carinae weak; posterior furrows present; sensilli with long pedicel and rounded head covered with few spines; interlamellar setae thick, erect covered with small spines in distal half; rostral and lamellar setae spiniform; in>ro>ss>ex>le. Notogaster with baciliform setae, rather short (c 1<c 1 -d 1) covered with spines in distal end, setae c 3 near the anterior margin, setae c 2 and c 3 remote from margin, setae c 2 more than setae c 1; vestigial setae f 1 posterior of h 1 setae. Ventral region; setae h of mentum shorter than distance between them; formula of genital setae: 6: 3 or 6: 4; between setae of anoadanal plates setae ad 2 thick and longest; setae ad 3 shortest and covered with small spines as notogastral setae; other setae rough. Chaetome of legs complete; setae d of femora I, curved and located at distal end of article.

Localities in Mauritius, Mayotte (Comoros) and Seychelles: Mahunka 1978a, Niedbala 2001, 2008a.

Distribution — Pantropical.

Atropacarus.(Hoplophorella) stilifer (Hammer, 1961)

(Figure 111)

Figure 111. Atropacarus.(Hoplophorella) stilifer (Hammer, 1961) (specimen from Cameroon): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – seta c 1; E – seta h 3; F – left anoadanal plate; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Steganacarus stilifer Hammer 1961

Hoplophorella benoiti Mahunka 1984 syn. by Niedbala 2001

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) stilifer: Niedbala 2001

Diagnosis — Measurements of body of holotype 380 (Hammer 1961). Measurements of paratype of Hoplophorella benoiti: prodorsum: length 180, width 126, height 78; notogaster: length 353, width 212, height 207.

Rather small-sized species; colour light brown, surface covered with small concavities. Prodorsum with median sigillar field narrow, longer than laterals; posterior furrows present, lateral carinae visible; sensilli long, recurved, sickle-shaped, inflated in distal end and covered with small spines; other setae slightly lanceolate; ss>in>ro>le; exobothridial setae vestigial. Notogaster with inflated setae, short (c 1<c 1 -d 1) covered with spines in distal end, setae c 1 near the anterior margin, setae c 2 and c 3 remote from margin; vestigial setae f 1 posterior of h 1 setae. Ventral region; setae h of mentum almost equal as distance between them (shorter in specimen from Cameroon); formula of genital setae: 6: 3; between setae of anoadanal plates setae ad 2 lanceolate and longest; anal setae long, filiform, smooth, setae ad 3 shortest. Chaetome of legs incomplete; setae l' on genua IV absent; setae d of femora I, curved and slightly remote from anterior margin.

Locality in Seychelles: Niedbala 2008a.

Distribution — Pantropical.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) tuberculosissimus (Mahunka, 1978)

(Figure 112)

Steganacarus tuberculosissimus Mahunka 1978

Hoplophorella horrida Mahunka 1984 syn. by Niedbala 2001

Hoplophorella maszarosi Mahunka 1988 syn. by Niedbala 2001

Hoplophorella tuberosa Mahunka 1988 syn. by Niedbala 2001

Hoplophorella verrucosa Mahunka 1987 syn. by Niedbala 2001

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) tuberculosissimus: Niedbala 2001

Figure 112. Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) tuberculosissimus (Mahunka, 1978) (paratype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – paraxial margin of left genitoaggenital plate; E – left anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements after Niedbala (2001): prodorsum: length 298-429, width 207-273, height 126-187; notogaster: length 716-948, width 363-505, height 406-511.

Large-sized species; colour light brown, body strongly sculptured, covered with some ribs, foveoles and rugae. Prodorsum with powerful quadrangular median crista with three anterior projections well visible in dorsal aspect; lateral carinae and posterior furrows present; median sigillar field trapezial, lateral fields short; sensilli rather long, smooth, blade-shaped, tapering, flagellate at distal end; other setae needle-shaped; lamellar setae situated anteriorly of interlamellar ones, distance between interlamellar setae is large; ss>in>ro>le; exobothridial setae vestigial. Notogaster with well-developed anterior hood; setae thin, fine, short and curved (c 1/c 1-d 1=0,16-0,21), majority of setae inserted on tubercules; setae of row c remote from anterior margin, c 1 situated in the middle of the hood, c 3 near anterior margin, setae c 2 far from margin; vestigial setae not visible. Ventral region; setae h of mentum shorter than distance between them; formula of genital setae: 4: 5; anal and adanal setae minute. Chaetome of legs complete; setae d on femora I situated on distal end of article.

Localities in Mauritius: Mahunka 1978b, 1987, 1988b, Niedbala 2001.

Distribution — Afrotropical and South Africain, disjunctive.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) vitrinus (Berlese, 1913)

(Figs 113, 114)

Hoploderma vitrinum Berlese 1913.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) vitrinus: Niedbala 2001.

Hoplophorella scapellata Aoki 1965 syn. by Niedbala 2000.

Hoplophorella africana Wallwork 1967 syn. by Niedbala 1986.

Hoplophorella raychaudhurii Subías et Sarkar 1984 syn.by Niedbala 1986.

Hoplophorella lienhardi Mahunka 1987 syn. by Niedbala 2000.

Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) nigeriensis Badejo et al. 2001 (Badejo et al. 2001a), syn. by Niedbala 2008a.

Figure 113. Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) vitrinus (Berlese, 1913) (specimen from Brazil): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – left genitoaggenital plate; E – right anoadanal plate; F – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Figure 114. Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) vitrinus (Berlese, 1913) (specimen from MAG-284l): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – anterior part of dorsal view of "Notogaster"; E – mentum of subcapitulum; F – right genitoaggenital plate; G – right anoadanal plate; H – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements after Niedbala (2011): length of prodorsum: 168-253; length of notogaster: 383-483. Measurements of one specimen from MAG-284: prodorsum: length 242, width 151, height 101, setae: 86, interlamellar 51, lamellar 13, rostral 46; notogaster: length 480, width and height 278, setae: c 1 56, c 1/c 1-d 1=0.6, h 1 61, ps 1 56; genitoaggenital plate 139x101, anoadanal plate 152x111.

Medium-sized species; colour brown, surface covered with small concavities. Prodorsum with distinct median crista; posterior furrows distinct; median sigillar field bifurcate with deep incision, longer than laterals; lateral carinae reaching the sinus; sensilli sickle-shaped, long, narrow, inflated in the middle covered with thin spines; interlamellar setae lanceolate, rough; lamellar and exobothridial setae spiniform, minute; rostral setae thick, directed inwards, rough; ro>ss>in>ex>le. Notogaster with setae foliate, short (c 1<c 1-d 1) covered with small spines; vestigial setae f 1 posteriorly to h 1 setae. Ventral region; setae h of mentum shorter than distance between them; formula of genital setae: 6: 3; anoadanal plate with setae ad 2 foliate covered with small spines, remaining setae short, spiniform, setae ad 3 somewhat shorter than others. Chaetome of legs reduced, setae a' on tarsi I absent; setae d of femora I slightly remote from distal end.

Remark — All specimens from locality: MAG-284 have vestigial exobothridial setae.

Localities in Comoros, Seychelles, Mauritius, Reunion: Mahunka 1978a, Niedbala 2001, 2008a) and in Madagascar: Mahunka 2009b.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan.

Subgenus Atropacarus Ewing, 1917

Cerotegument usually present. Lateral carinae of prodorsum usually absent; sensilli long; rostral setae usually positioned at end of rostrum. Notogaster with 16 or more pairs of setae (exceptionally 15 pairs), vestigial setae f1 always posteriorly of h1 setae; lyrifissures im below the line cp-h 3. Ventral region; genitoaggenital plates with nine pairs of genital setae (exceptionally with seven pairs with formula: 6: 1), with formula: 6: 3 (exceptionally with formula: 7: 2); four setae (ad 1, an 1, an 2, ad 2) on paraxial margin of anoadanal plates, all setae on anoadanal plates well developed, adanal setae neotrichous occasionally. Legs; setae d on femora I located at distal end of the segment.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan.

Atropacarus (Atropacarus) primus Niedbala et Starý, 2015

(Figure 115)

Figure 115. Atropacarus (Atropacarus) primus, 2015 (holotype): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – seta c 3; E – median cristae of notogaster; F – mentum of subcapitulum; G – right genitoaggenital plate; H – right anoadanal plate; I – trochanter and femur of leg I; J – tibia of leg IV.

Diagnosis — Measurements of holotype: prodorsum: length 520, width 328, height 252; setae: ss 172, in 169, le 101, ro 51, ex 63; notogaster: length 1030, width 606, height 616, seta c1 and h1 233, c1 /c 1d1 =1.1, ps1 164; genitoaggenital region 253x215, anoadanal region 367x215.

Specimens of this species are large; colour yellow; body surface punctuated with feeble cavities on borders of body and in ventral plates. Prodorsum with prominent median crista; lateral carinae reach sinus; posterior furrows distinct; median sigillar field long, narrow, slightly broadened anteriorly longer than laterals; sensilli long filiform, rough, without head; interlamellar and lamellar setae long, robust, covered with small spines in distal end, similar in shape to notogastral setae; rostral setae short, spiniform, rough, directed inward, exobothridial setae of medium length; ss>in>le>ex>ro. Notogaster with two median cristae along the dorsal part; setae of medium length (c 1>c 1 -d 1), robust setae covered with small spines in distal end, only setae c 3 are whole ciliated, setae c 1 located far from anterior border, setae c 2 remote, setae c 3 near the border. Ventral region; arrangement of genital setae: 4: 5; anoadanal plate with 5 pairs of rough setae, four of setae arranged at paraxial border of plate and small setae ad 3 remote from border, setae ad 2 thickest and longest. Chaetome of legs complete; setae d on femora I curved and slightly remote from distal end of article.

Locality in Madagascar: Niedbala & Starý 2015a.

Distribution — Afrotropical, found only in Madagascar, endemic.

Atropacarus (Atropacarus) striculus (C.L. Koch, 1836)

(Figure 116)

Hoplophora stricula C.L. Koch, 1836.

Figure 116. Atropacarus (Atropacarus) striculus (C.L. Koch, 1836). A-E (specimen from Poland); F-G (specimen from MAG-069): A – prodorsum, dorsal view; B – prodorsum, lateral view; C – opisthosoma, lateral view; D – mentum of subcapitulum; E – trochanter, femur, genual and tibia of leg I; F – anterior part of notogaster; G – trochanter and femur of leg I.

Diagnosis — Measurements after Niedbala (2011): length of prodorsum 166-292; length of notogaster 318-589.

Small to medium-sized species: colour yellow to pale brown, surface covered with small concavities. Prodorsum with median sigillar field slightly longer than laterals, with a shallow incision between rostral setae; posterior furrows present, lateral carinae absent; sensilli sickle-shaped covered with thin spines; interlamellar setae procumbent, thicker than the others covered with spines, rostral and lamellar setae spiniform, rough, ss>in>ro>le>ex. Notogaster bears 16 pairs of short (c 1 <c 1-d 1) bacilliform setae covered with small spines, additional setae between e 1-h 1 (e 1'), setae c 1 near the anterior margin, with c 2 and c 3 further away and c 2 furthest; two pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present. Ventral region; h>h-h; genitoaggenital plates with seven pairs of setae, with formula: 6: 1; anoadanal plates with five pairs of setae, these on the proximal margin diminish anteriorly, an/not=0.3. Chaetome of legs reduced; setae s on tarsi I are missing; v"/v'=4; setae d of femora I slightly remote from anterior margin.

Remark — I found one specimen (in MAG-069) which is very small (prodorsum: length 182, height 86; notogaster: length 338, height 207); for comparison with the dimensions of a specimen from Poland: length of prodorsum 279, length of notogaster 589. Moreover notogastral setae are smaller (c1 30; c1 /c1 -d1 =0.4); for comparison with specimen from Poland c1 /c1 -d1 =0.6. Finally setae of genua IV are absent and setae v' and v" of femora I are slightly shifted anteriorly from middle of article.

Species new for Afrotropical Region.

Distribution — Semicosmopolitan.

Tritonymphs

(Figure 117)

Figure 117. Tritonymphs undetermined, probably phthiracaroid species. A, B – tritonymph from sample MAG-082: A – lateral view of body, B – mentum of subcapitulum; C, D – tritonymph from sample MAG-030: C – lateral view of body; D – mentum of subcapitulum.

Furthermore, in two samples I found the tritonymphs of two species. They are with high probability phthiracaroid mites.

Measurements of tritonymph from sample MAG-82: prodorsum: length 252, height 126; notogaster: length 545, height 273.

Colour light yellow, integument punctate. Prodorsum with setae interlamellar, lamellar and rostral long, attenuate, smooth, setae exobothridial minute, sensilli vestigial. notogaster with 15 pairs of long, attenuate and smooth setae. Ventral region; setae h of mentum longer than distance between them; epimeral formula: 3-0-2-3; three pairs of adanal and two pairs of anal setae present. Setation of legs: I: 1-2-2(1)-5(1)-17(3), II: 1-2-2(1)-4(1)-13(2), III: 2-2-1(1)-3(1)-11, IV: 2-1-1-2(1)-10; all tarsi monodactylous. Species found in the sample: Oribotritia mahunkai, O. striata, Indotritia paulyi, Acrotritia rustica, Phthiracarus baloghorum.

Measurements of one of two tritonymphs from sample MAG-30: prodorsum: length 404, height 177; notogaster: length 677, height 505.

This tritonymph is similar to former, only the setation of epimeres and legs is different.

Formula of epimeres: 3-1-2-3. Chaetome of legs: I: 1-2-3(1)-4(1)-17(3), II: 1-1-1(1)-3(1)-14(2), III: 2-2-1(1)-2(1)-11, IV: 2-1-2-3(1)-10; all tarsi monodactylous.

Species found in the sample: Oribotritia striata, O. virgulata, Indotritia paulyi, Microtritia tropica, Notophthiracarus pandanensis, N. parasomalicus, N. parilloi, Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) balazsi, A. (H.) distinctus.

Keys for determination
Key for determination of cohorts

1. Either notogaster with well discernible furrows on posterior half of body or ventral side with distinct ventral plate showing genital and anal openings well separated by brachypily .
...... Arthroptyctima

— Neither posterior notogastral furrows nor a brachypylic ventral plate displaying separate genital and anal openings present. Genital and anal openings joined, large and wide or narrow
...... Euptyctima

Keys for determination of families, genera, subgenera and species in Arthroptyctima

1. Pygidial part of "notogaster" with several distinct transverse scisures
...... 2 (Protoplophoridae)

— Pygidial part of "notogaster" without distinct transverse scisures
...... 3 (Archoplophoridae and Mesoplophoridae)

2. Genitoaggenital plates smaller than anoadanal plates; setae on anoadanal plates inserted in two rows
...... Bursoplophora madagassica

— Genitoaggenital plates larger than anoadanal plates; setae on anoadanal plates inserted in almost one longitudinal row
...... Prototritia armadillo

3. Genital and anal plates, adanal plates distinct, three pairs of anal and three pairs of adanal setae present
...... Archoplophophora rostralis

— Genital and anal plates separated, adanal plates absent, two to four pairs of anal setae present
...... Mesoplophora 4

4. Two pairs of anal setae present
...... 5

— Three pairs of anal setae present
...... 7

5. Exobothridial setae as long as diameter of bothridia, formula of genital setae: 5: 2
...... M. (M.) invisitata

— Exobothridial setae shorter than diameter of bothridia, formula of genital setae: 6: 1
...... 6

6. Interlamellar, lamellar and rostral setae smooth and fine
...... M. (M.) similis

— Interlamellar, lamellar and rostral setae covered with small spines
...... M. (M.) africana

7. Sensilli with lanceolate head; interlamellar setae the longest
...... M. (P.) madegassica

— Sensilli needleform without head; interlamellar setae the shortest
...... M. (P.) leviseta

Keys for determination of superfamilies, families, genera, subgenera and species in Euptyctima

Key for determination of superfamilies

1. Body considerably compressed laterally, genitoaggenital and anoadanal regions narrow, V-shaped
...... Euphthiracaroidea

— Body less compressed laterally, genitoaggenital and anoadanal regions relatively wide, U-shaped
...... Phthiracaroidea

Key for determination of families in superfamily Euphthiracaroidea

1. Ventral plates not completely fused, at least anal plates separated, anogenital region without interlocking triangle
...... Oribotritiidae

— Ventral plates completely fused, at least one interlocking triangle present in anogenital region
...... Euphthiracaridae

Key for determination of genera of family in family Oribotritiidae

1. Genitoaggenital scissure incomplete, two plates well delineated from each other only posteriorly
...... Indotritia

— Genitoaggenital scissure complete
...... Oribotritia

Key for determination of species in genus Oribotritia

1. One pair of lateral carinae of prodorsum
...... 2

— Two pairs of lateral carinae of prodorsum
...... 5

2. Three pairs of anal setae present
...... O. succincta

— Anal plates with one pair of setae or without setae
...... 3

3. Three pairs of aggenital setae
...... O. tiwi

— Two pairs of aggenital setae
...... 4

4. Sensilli as long as height of prodorsum; simple lateral carinae distinct but fine
...... O. perpusilla

— Sensilli length of one third of the height of prodorsum; single lateral carinae but so strong that looking as double
...... O. spinosa

5. Anal plates with three pairs of setae
...... O. virgulata

— Anal plates with one pair of setae
...... 6

6. Three pairs of aggenital setae
...... O. striata

— Two pairs of aggenital setae
...... 7

7. Notogastral setae shorter (c 1/c 1-d 1=0.2)
...... O. breviseta

— Notogastral setae longer (c 1/c 1-d 1$pprox$0.5)
...... 8

8. Distance between setae ad 1 and ad 2 longer than between setae ad 2 and ad 3; setae ag 1 shorter than setae ag 2
...... O. mahunkai

— Similar distance between adanal setae; aggenital setae similar in length
...... O. paraspinosa

Key for determination of species in genus Indotritia

1. Interlamellar setae shorter, bent posteriorly; two pairs of anal and two pairs of adanal setae
...... I. krakatauensis

— Interlamellar setae longer, erect; one pair of anal and three pairs of adanal setae
...... 2

2. Lateral carinae with three branches; notogastral setae shorter (c 1/c 1-d 1=0.5)
...... I. tripartita

— Two pairs of lateral carinae; notogastral setae longer (c 1/c 1-d 1>0.6)
...... 3

3. Notogastral setae longer (c 1/c 1-d 1=0.9); setae ad 1 and ad 2 considerably longer than setae ad 3
...... I. paulyi

— Notogastral setae shorter (c 1/c 1-d 1<0.7); adanal setae short, similar in length
...... I. javensis

Key for determination of genera in family Euphthiracariidae

1. Two triangles, one anterior and one posterior join the left with the right anoadanal plates, bothridial scale situated below bothridium
...... Euphthiracarus

— Only one anterior triangle joins the left with the right anoadanal plate, bothridial scale situated above bothridium
...... 2

2. Genitoaggenital plates with 4–5 genital setae, trochanter of legs III and IV with one seta .
...... Microtritia

— Genitoaggenital plates with 7–9 genital setae, trochanter of legs III and IV with two setae
...... 3

3. Anterior traces of anoadanal suture present; genua of legs IV without setae
...... Bukitritia timah

— Anterior traces of anoadanal suture absent; genua of legs IV with at least one setae .
...... Rhysotritia

Key for determination of species in genus Euphthiracarus

1. Surface covered with dense striation; setae g 6-9 long and flagellate, longer than setae g 1-5, ratio 3.4
...... E. incredibilis

— Surface of body densely punctuate; genital setae similar in length or setae g 6-9 only slightly longer than setae g 1-5
...... 2

2. Prodorsum with one pair lateral carinae; sensilli with fusiform, rough head
...... E. netron

— Prodorsum with two pairs of lateral carinae; sensilli baciliform, smooth, without head
...... E. duplex

Key for determination of species in genus Acrotritia

1. All tarsi of legs monodactylous
...... 2

— Tarsi of legs I – bidactylous, tarsi of legs II–IV – heterotridactylous
...... 5

2. Lateral carinae of prodorsum forked distally
...... 3

— Lateral carinae of prodorsum simple, not forked
...... 4

3. Superior branch of carinae long, begins between level of interlamellar and lamellar setae
...... A. divida

— Superior branch of carinae short, begins between level of lamellar and rostral setae
...... A. refracta

4. Sensilli with oblongly fusiform head
...... A. rustica

— Sensilli with well-separated, claviform head
...... A. spiculifera

5. Surface of body covered with polygonal reticulation
...... A. granulata

— Surface of body punctuated
...... 6

6. Lateral carinae of prodorsum forked distally
...... 7

— Lateral carinae of prodorsum simple, not forked
...... 8

7. Beginning of superior branch of carinae not joined with inferior branch
...... A. paradikra

— Beginning of superior branch of carinae joined with inferior branch
...... A. vestita

8. Head of sensilli clavate; all genital setae outside of progenital area
...... A. paraardua

— Head of sensilli fusiform; one genital setae, g 1 in progenital position
...... A. ardua

Key for determination of species in genus Microtritia

1. Surface of body striated
...... M. striatissima

— Surface of body punctuated
...... 2

2. Distance ro-ro3x>le-le; five pairs of genital setae
...... M. tropica

— Distance ro-ro2x>le-le, four pairs of genital setae
...... M. hauseri

Key for determination of genera, subgenera and species in superfamily Phthiracaroidea

1. Four setae (ad 1, an 1, an 2, ad 2) in a row near paraxial margin of anoadanal plates
...... Atropacarus (Atropacarus)

— Fewer setae near paraxial margin
...... 2

2. Three pairs of setae (ad 1, an 1, an 2) in a row near paraxial margin of anoadanal plates
...... 3

— Two pairs of setae (an 1 and an 2) near paraxial margin of anoadanal plates
...... 4

3. Genital setae g7-9 displaced towards paraxial margin of genitoaggenital plates and arranged in a row with setae g 1-5, setae g 6 not displace
...... Protophthiracarus

— All genital setae located in a row along paraxial margin
...... Atropacarus (Hoplophorella)

4. Setae d on tibiae of legs IV long, independent of solenidia
...... 5

— Setae d on tibiae of legs IV short, coupled with solenidia
...... 6

5. Genital setae arranged in two rows, g6-9 always in some distance from paraxial margin
...... Plonaphacarus

— Genital setae situated nearly in one row
...... Hoplophthiracarus paratryssos

6. Genital setae arranged in two rows, setae g6-9 remote from paraxial margin or at least setae g 6 and g 7 distinctly remote
...... Phthiracarus

— Genital setae displaced towards paraxial margin and arranged in a row or nearly, or setae g7- 9 displaced towards margin, setae g 6 remote from margin
...... 7

7. Genital setae arranged in a row near paraxial margin of plates
...... Notophthiracarus

— Genital setae g 7-9 displaced towards paraxial margin and forming a row with setae g 1-5
...... Arphthicarus

Key for determination of species in genus Phthiracarus

1. Sensilli bulbiform at proximal half and tapering and needle-like in distal half
...... P. baloghorum

— Sensilli not bulbiform at proximal half
...... 2

2. Setae g 6 unusual remote from paraxial margin of genital plate
...... P. ochthus

— Setae g 6 not more remote than other genital setae
...... 3

3. Sensilli short and wide, length not more than 10 times of width
...... 4

— Sensilli long and narrow, their length more than 10 times of width
...... 7

4. Two pairs of lyrifissures on "Notogaster" ia and im present; setae ad l and ad 3 located in a nearly the same row with anal setae
...... P. anonymus

— Four pairs of lyrifissures on "Notogaster" ia, im, ip and ips present; setae ad l and ad 3 remote from paraxial border more than anal setae
...... 5

5. Notogastral setae long, c 1>c 1-d 1
...... P. parapocsi

— Notogastral setae shorter, c 1<c 1-d 1
...... 6

6. Vestigial setae f 1 located anterior or at level of h 1 setae, adanal setae ad 1 and ad 2 well developed
...... P. ranomafaensis

— Vestigial setae f 1 located posterior of h 1 setae, adanal setae ad 1 and ad 2 vestigial
...... P. nitens

7. Surface of body covered with small concavities
...... P. pygmaeus

— Surface of body punctuated
...... 8

8. Adanal setae ad 1 and ad 2 vestigial
...... P. lentulus

— Adanal setae ad 1 and ad 2 well developed
...... 9

9. Vestigial setae f 1 located anterior of h 1 setae; formula of genital setae 7(4+2); setae ad 2 rather long, similar to other adanal setae; setae v' of femora I absent
...... P. crispus

— Vestigial setae f 1 located posterior of h 1 setae; formula of genital setae 7(4+3): 2; setae ad 2 minute; setae v' of femora I present
...... P. paracrispus

Key for determination of species in genus Plonaphacarus

1. Rostral setae directed inwards; notoastral setae thick, sword-shaped
...... P. tanzicus

— Rostral setae directed forwards; notogastral setae not so thick and not sword-shaped
...... 2

2. Lateral carinae of prodorsum long, extending beyond the sinus, two pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present
...... P. kugohi

— Lateral cariane of prodorsum shorter, four pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip, ips present
...... 3

3. Setae ad 2 long, more than three times as long as anal setae, bent distally, rostral setae not extending the end of rostrum, exobothridial setae vestigial
...... P. persimilis

— Setae ad 2 not so longer than anal setae, pointed distally; rostral setae extending the end of rostrum; exobothridial setae well developed
...... P. machadoi

Key for determination of species in genus Arphthicarus

1. Interlamellar setae short spiniform as lamellar setae
...... 2

— Interlamellar setae rather long, thick, erect covered with small spines in distal half
...... 3

2. Sensilli with short, narrow pedicel and globular head; setae d of femora I situated at middle of article
...... A. paratinctus

— Sensilli long, narrow, falcate; setae d of femora I situated at distal end of article
...... A. phoxos

3. Notogastral setae c 3 and cp distinctly shorter than other setae and bent
...... A. inelegans

— All notogastral similar in shape
...... 4

4. Setae ro shorter and distance between them 3 times shorter than distance between setae in; notogastral setae obtuse distally; setae c 1 slightly remote from anterior border, setae c 2 and c 3 more remote from border
...... A. veteratorius

— Setae ro longer and distance between them similar to distance between setae in; notogastral setae pointed distally; setae c 2 remote more from anterior border than setae c 1 and c 3
...... 5

5. Sensilli rounded distally, notogastral setae shorter (c 1<c 1-d 1), adanal setae ad 2 and ad 3 located near paraxial margin
...... A. sculptilis

— Sensilli pointed distally, notogastral setae longer (c 1>c 1-d 1), adanal setae ad 2 and ad 3 remote from paraxial margin
...... A. trichosus

Key for determination of species in genus Protophthiracarus

1. Notogastral setae thick, spiniform, rough; dorsal setae longer than lateral ones
...... P. mayottei

— Notogastral setae thick and barbed at distal half, at least median setae in shape of aspergillum
...... 2

2. Setae in longer covered with spines in distal half; setae c 3 remote from anterior margin; four pairs of lyrifissures
...... P. mahunkai

— Seta in shorter, rough; setae c 3 situated on margin; three pairs of lyrifissures
...... P. araios

Key for determination of species in genus Notophthiracarus

Because of incomplete data on morphological details it is difficult to include in the key N. paulianus (Balogh, 1962), whose generic status is uncertain.

1. Surface of body reticulated
...... 2

— Surface of body not reticulate, punctuate, foveolate or ornamented with ribs
...... 3

2. Sensilli baciliform, interlamellar setae erect, setae ad 2 remote from paraxial border
...... N. medius

— Sensilli dilated distally, interlamellar setae procumbent, setae ad 2 near paraxial border
...... N. reticulatus

3. Surface of body ornamented with longitudinal parallel ribs resembling finger dermatoglyph
...... 4

— Surface of body punctuate or foveolate
...... 6

4. Sensilli setiform, long, thin, rough, slightly sickle-shaped; setae v' of femora I present, setae d forked distally
...... N. zebrus

— Sensilli long, bulbous or short with rounded head; setae v' of femora I absent, setae d not forked
...... 5

5. Sensilli short, with rounded head; formula of genital seta: 6(4+2); seta d of femora I in middle of article
...... N. dactyloscopicus

— Sensilli long, bulbous in proximal part and very narrow and tapering in distal part; formula of genital setae: 5: 4; setae d of femora I at distal end of article
...... N. liratus

6. Surface of body foveolate
...... 7

— Surface of body punctate
...... 24

7. Foveolae on notogaster joined with feeble lines or ordered in irregular longitudinal furrows
...... 8

— Foveoles ordered separately
...... 9

8. Foveolae on notogaster joined with feeble lines; formula of genital setae: 6: 3
...... N. lineatus

— Foveoles ordered in irregular longitudinal furrows; formula of genital setae: 5: 4
...... N. pseudosomalicus

9. Sensilli needleform or baciliform, without head
...... 9

— Sensilli with distinct head
...... 14

10. Notogaster with two dorsal, longitudinal cristae, framed flat field; formula of genital setae: 4: 5
...... N. bicarinatus

— Notogaster without cristae; another formula of genital setae:
...... 11

11. Sensilli baciliform, not sickle-shaped
...... 12

— Sensilli sickle-shaped
...... 13

12. Adanal setae ad 2 situated near paraxial border; setae d on femora bifurcated distally
...... N. dispersus

— Adanal setae ad 2 remote from paraxial border; setae d on femora not bifurcated distally
...... N. summersi

13. Lamellar setae vestigial; ro-ro>in-in; formula of genital setae: 6: 3
...... N. procerus

— Lamellar setae not vestigial; ro-ro<in-in; formula of genital setae: 5: 4
...... 14

14. Interlamellar setae long, as long as distance ro-in; h>h-h; setae d of femora I bifurcate
...... N. echinus

— Interlamellar setae considerably shorter than ro-in; h<h-h, setae d of femora I not bifurcate
...... N. parapaulianus

15. Notogaster with two dorsal, longitudinal cristae, framed flat field; prodorsum with crested prominent median crista
...... N. quasisimilis

— Notogaster without dorsal cristae; prodorsum without crista or if exist is not crested
...... 16

16. Adanal setae ad 2 remote anteriorly close to ad 3 setae
...... N. inusitatus

— Adanal setae ad 2 situated at level of anal setae
...... 17

17. Notogaster setae minute (c 1<1/4c 1-d 1); all setae of anoadanal plate minute
...... N. rafalski

— Notogaster setae longer, at least c 1=1/2c 1-d 1); at least anal setae long
...... 18

18. Anal setae long, all adanal setae minute; setae d of femora I forked, located in middle of article
...... N. parareductus

— Anal setae at least slightly shorter than adanal setae ad 1 and ad 2; setae d not forked, located near distal end of article
...... 19

19. Adanal setae ad 2 thick, obtuse and bent distally
...... N. similis

— Adanal setae ad 2 pointed and not bent distally
...... 20

20. Setae in and le very short, needle-like, similar in length
...... N. pandanensis

— Setae in thick, stout, considerably longer than setae le
...... 21

21. Three pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip present; formula of genital setae: 6: 3
...... N. malagasensis

— Two pairs of lyrifissures ia, im present; formula of genital setae: 5: 4
...... 22

22. Head of sensilli covered with 4 spines; longer lamellar setae; curved setae d of femora I
...... N. quasisomalicus

— Head of sensilli smooth or covered with some small spines; lamellar setae minute or vestigial; setae d of femora I straight
...... 23

23. Lamellar setae minute; notogastral setae shorter (c 1<c 1<d 1); setae d of femora I slightly remote from distal end of article
...... N. parasomalicus

— Lamellar setae vestigial; notogastral setae longer (c 1>c 1<d 1); setae d of femora I at distal end
...... N. parasummersi

24. Interlamellar setae erect and as notogastral setae with hooked distal end
...... N. clavifer

— Interlamellar setae procumbent and as notogastral setae without hooked distal end
...... 25

25. Bothridia covered by small, triangular scales; sensilli with longer pedicel than rounded head; setae in and le spiniform
...... N. puylaerti

— Bothridia without scales; another shape of sensilli; setae in and le filiform or rigid and rough
...... 26

26. Setae in and le setae rigid, semi-erect, rough, all notogastral setae similar in length and shape; two pairs of lyrifissures ia and im present
...... N. parilloi

— Setae in and le setae filiform, attenuate, procumbent; notogastral setae different in length and shape; four pairs of lyrifissures ia, im, ip and ips present
...... 27

27. Sensilli club-like, rounded distally; ro-ro>1/2in-in
...... N. obliquus

— Sensilli with pointed tip; ro-ro<1/4in-in
...... 28

28. Majority of notogastral minute; h>h-h; setae ad 2 laterally and anterior of anal setae
...... N. micidus

— Only 5 pairs of notogastral setae minute; h<h-h; setae ad 2 laterally and between anal setae
...... N. andasibensis

Key for determination of species in subgenus Atropacarus (Hoplophorella)

1. Notogaster with a pair of longitudinal, rolled dorsal cristae and posteriorly with two pairs of tubercules
...... A. (H.) distinctus

— Notogaster without cristae, tubercules if exist are more numerous
...... 2

2. Notogaster with numerous tubercules
...... 3

— Notogaster without tubercules
...... 5

3. Prodorsum with powerful quadrangular median crista with three anterior projections; Notogaster with well-developed anterior hood
...... A. (H.) tuberculosissimus

— Prodorsum with simple median crista only; Notogaster without anterior hood
...... 4

4. Notogaster anteriorly with sharp crest and concavity; setae ad 3 remote from paraxial border
...... A. (H.) balazsi

— Notogaster with thick anterior collar; setae ad 3 very close to an 2
...... A. (H.) mwali

5. All notogastral setae with phyliform, spoon or leaf-shaped setae
...... 6

— Notogaster with filiform, spiniform setae or slightly dilated or similar to aspergillum
...... 9

6. Notogaster with developed anterior collar
...... A. (H.) cucullatus

— Notogaster without anterior collar
...... 7

7. Rostral setae directed forwards; setae c 1 nearer anterior border, more than other c setae
...... A. (H.) hamatus

— Rostral setae directed inwards
...... 8

8. Notogaster with median band
...... A. (H.) andrei

— Notogaster without median band
...... A. (H.) vitrinus

9. Sensilli long, whip-shaped; "Notogaster" with setae similar to aspergillum, covered with spines in distal half
...... A. (H.) mahunkai

— Sensilli not whip-shaped; other shape of notogastral setae
...... 10

10. Setae of anoadanal plates minute, not longer than distances between them
...... 11

— Setae of anoadanal plates longer than distances between them (out of ad 3 setae)
...... 15

11. Notogaster without anterior projection
...... 12

— Notogaster with anterior hood
...... 14

12. Notogastral setae shorter, length of setae c 1-c 3 shorter than distance between them
...... A. (H.) minisetosus

— Notogastral setae longer, length of setae c 1-c 3 longer than distance between them
...... 13

13. Notogastral setae procumbent, sensilli with short club-like head
...... A. (H.) parastenos

— Notogastral setae semi-erect, sensilli with elongated head, assymetrically dilated
...... A. (H.) paralemurius

14. Notogaster with weak anterior hood, behind it a deep median hollow; h<h-h
...... A. (H.) lemurius

— Notogaster with anterior triangular hood reaching above prodorsum, hollow absent; h>h-h
...... A. (H.) multirugosus

15. Interlamellar setae erect considerably different in shape from lamellar setae, setae ad 3 shorter but similar to notogastral setae
...... A. (H.) singularis

— Interlamellar and lamellar setae procumbent, similar in shape, setae ad 3 spiniform similar to other adanal setae
...... 16

16. Sensilli longer, sickle-shaped; interlamellar and lamellar setae slightly lanceolate, similar in shape; exobothridial setae vestigial; notogastral setae lanceolate
...... A. (H.) stilifer

— Sensilli short, club-like; interlamellar setae spiniform; exobothridial setae minute; notogastral setae spiniform; notogastral setae spiniform .
...... A. (H.) oblongus

Key for determination of species in subgenus Atropacarus (Atropacarus)

1. Notogaster with with two median cristae along the dorsal part; 15 pairs of notogastral setae
...... A. (A.) primus

— Notogaster without median cristae; 16 pairs of notogastral setae
...... A. (A.) striculus

Results

The total number of species known from Madagascar and neighbouring islands, Seychelles, Mauritius, Comores and Reunion (MAG) is 111, for all of them morphological diagnoses were presented. Among these species 44 were redescribed on the basis of type material. Four species are new for the Afrotropical Region i.e. A. rostralis, I. javensis, A. refrecta and A. (A.) striculus and nine are new for MAG: P. armadillo, M. (M.) invisitata, A. divida, P. lentulus, P. machadoi, P. persimilis, P. tanzicus, A. (H.) cucullatus and A. (H.) oblongus.

Proportions of the number of species in particular higher taxa

The proportions of species in higher taxa (Table 1) are usually similar to those in the fauna of the other zoogeographic regions in southern hemisphere.

Table 1. Number of species of ptyctimous mites identified on Madagascar and neighbouring islands in systematic order (percentage of taxons within Arthroptyctima, Euphthiracaroidea and Phthiracaroidea)

The ratio of the species representing Protoplophoridae and Archoplophoridae: Mesoplophoridae: Euphthiracaroidea: Phthiracaroidea is 3: 5: 30: 73 (in % 2: 5: 27: 66). These proportions are similar as in the fauna of Neotropical and Afrotropical Regions.

The proportions of species in the two families of Euphthiracaroidea: more primitive

Oribotritiidae – 13 species and less primitive Euphthiracaridae – 17 species are comparable, similarly as in the fauna of Neotropical and Afrotropical Regions. In Phthiracaroidea more primitive Phthiracaridae are represented by much fewer number of species (10) than Steganacaridae (63), similarly as in the faunas of Oriental, Neotropical and Afrotropical Regions.

Among Euphthiracaroidea the genera Oribotritia (similarly as in the fauna of Australasian Region) and Acrotritia (richer in species than in other zoogeographic regions) are the richest in species.

Among Phthiracaroidea by far the most abundant in species is the genus Notophthiracarus, while Hoplophorella and Phthiracarus are also rather abundant. The genus Notophthiracarus is relatively rich in species also in Australasian Region, in South Africa and also in Afrotropical Region. Hoplophorella and Phthiracarus are represented by a similar number of species in Afrotropical Region.

Proportions of the number of zoogeographical elements

The high number of species (88) found in MAG – endemic 68 (61 %) and indigenous 20 (18%) is comparable to the number of endemic species in Afrotropical and Neotropical Regions. The relative number of pantropical species is also high and the same as in the Oriental Region (10%).

Similarity of the MAG fauna to the faunas of other zoogeographical regions

The fauna of MAG (111 species) is closer to that of Afrotropical Region (200 species) (15% common species) than to that of the Oriental Region (262 species) (4% common species), nine common species occur in central part of Africa and 6 common species occur only in the eastern part of Afrotropical Region.

A rather high number of widespread species: 5 semicosmopolitan and 9 pantropical, are common to the faunas of MAG and Oriental Region. Four of them seem to be of oriental origin, two of them M. (M.) invisitata and B. timah are present in Oriental Region, while A. divida and P. crispus are present in Oriental and Australasian Regions (Niedbala 2000).

Classical data indicates on the presence of sister groups of fauna of India and MAG because India was the subcontinent to which Madagascar was for the longest time connected. On the other hand, some data point to the phylogenetic relations of many groups of fauna with Africa, which shows that ancestors of many taxa have crossed the Mozambique Channel barrier (Glaw & Vences 2007).

Nevertheless, there is little similarity between the ptyctimous mite fauna of MAG and India. From among 63 species found in India (Niedbala 2000) and 111 species found in MAG only nine widespread species are common. However, it should be mentioned that the ptyctimous mites fauna of India is poorly known and the majority of the species reported so far from India come from the northern part of the subcontinent, so from the zone bordering with Palaearctic Region (Niedbala 2000).

Analysis of species found in the newly collected samples
Qualitative data (species from bibliographic data of the designated localities are included)

The new samples (more than 170) were collected in 2010-2015 at the nine areas from different geographic parts of Madagascar (figure 1, table 2).

Table 2a. Ptyctimous mites from Madagascar; newly collected (2010-2015) species are given in bold; number of areas refers to numbers given in section 4

Table 2b. Continued.

In new samples 78 species from the total of 111 known from MAG were found. 18 species known from bibliography were not contained in the new material (table 2). The total number of species known from Madagascar is 96, while 15 species were found only on the neighbouring islands.

The richest in species is the eastern part of the island (areas: 3, 5. 6, 7) in which 67 species were found, while in the northern part (areas: 1, 2) and central part (area 4) the numbers of species found are 53 and 34, respectively. It is simply related to the number of collected samples (over 40 % in the eastern part of the island) and the diversity of explored environments.

The species found only in the northern part of Madagascar (1) include: M. (P.) madegassica (endemic), E. (E.) paranetron (endemic), A. divida (pantropical), P. persimilis (Afrotropical, eastern part), A. phoxos (endemic), N. bicarinatus (endemic), N. procerus (endemic), A. (A.) andrei (pantropical), A. (H.) parastenos (endemic).

The species found only in the northwestern part of the island (2): A. rostralis (semicosmopolitic), M. (M.) invisitata (pantropical).

The species found only in the both northern parts of the island (1, 2): P. armadillo (Afrotropical, eastern), A. (H.) cucullatus (semicosmopolitic), A. H.) oblongus (Afrotropical).

So, to sum up, in the northern part of the island (41 samples) there are 14 exclusive species, rather widespread, only 6 of them are endemic.

In the western part of the island (8) there are no exclusive species.

Species found only in souhwestern part of the island (9), in four samples collected – B. madagassica (endemic).

Species found only in Central Highlands (4): E. (E.) incredibilis (endemic), B. timah (pantropical ?), A. granulata (endemic), P. tanzicus (Afrotropical, eastern), N. pandanensis (endemic), N. parasummersi (endemic), N. paulianus (endemic), A. (H.) distinctus (endemic).

So, in central part of island (55 samples) there are 8 exclusive species and up to 6 of them are endemits.

Species found only in the central eastern part (more northern position) of the island (3, 5, 6): M. (M.) similis (endemic), O. succincta (endemic), O. tiwi (Afrotropical, eastern), E. (E.) duplex (endemic), A. spiculifera (pantropical), N. dispersus (endemic), N. malagensis (endemic), N. medius (endemic), N. parapaulianus (endemic), N. quasisomalicus (endemic).

Species found only in the central eastern part (more southern position) of the island (7): O. perpusilla (endemic), E. (E.) netron (endemic), P. parapocsi (endemic), P. pygmaeus (pantropical), P. ranomafaensis (endemic), N. inusitatus (endemic), N. lineatus (endemic), N. liratus (endemic), N. obliquus (endemic), N. pseudosomalicus (endemic), N. quasisimilis (endemic), (A.) primus (endemic), A. (A.) striculus (semicosmopolitic).

Species found only in both eastern parts of the island (3, 5, 6, 7): A. refracta (pantropical), P. lentulus (introduced), N. reticularis (endemic).

So, in eastern part of island (69 samples) there are 26 exclusive species and up to 20 of them are endemic.

The strongest endemism of ptyctimous mites fauna is expressed in the eastern and central parts of the Madagascar.

Quantitative data

In a brief ecological analysis the following classes of domination (D) and frequency (C) were assumed (Kasprzak & Niedbala 1993).

Domination. The only species from the class of eudominants is O. striata (24%). No dominants were found in the material studied. The subdominants are : 6 %: O. mahunkai, A. vestita, P. araios, 4 % – O. paraspinosa, I. javensis, A. paradikra, 3 % – I. paulyi, A. ardua, A. sculptilis, N. similis, N. zebrus, P. mahunkai, 2 % – N. parasomalicus

Among them there are nine endemites and only three widespread species.

The three most abundant species are endemites. Among the ten most abundant species (above 300 specimens) there are six endemites.

Frequency. The frequency of species in the fauna studied is not high, there is no euconstanty. The only constant is O. striata (67%). No species represent the class of subconstant. Over ten species belong to the class of accessory species: 29% – P. baloghorum, 24% – P. araios, 23% – I. javensis, A. rustica, 22% – A. vestita, M. tropica, 20% – I. paulyi, N. similis, 19% – O. mahunkai, 18% – N. zebrus, 15% – O. virgulata

Among them seven are endemites. The other ones belong to the class of accidents. The most abundant species showing also the highest frequency is the endemic O. striata. The subsequent species according to the same criteria include five endemic species: P. araios, O. mahunkai. I. paulyi, N. similis, N. zebrus and two pantropical ones A. vestita, I. javensis.

The unique character of the ptyctimous mite fauna of Madagascar is indicated by the presence of a considerable number of endemic species among the dominant ones and the ones of high frequency.

Fauna of the islands Reunion, Comoros, Seychelles, Mauritius neighbouring to Madagascar
Among 111 ptyctimous mite species known from Madagascar and neighbouring islands, 30 were found in the islands: Reunion, Comoros, Seychelles, Mauritius (table 3). Nearly half of them (14) are widespread. Nearly 1/3 are Afrotropical species but originate only from the eastern part of the continent (10 species), seven species are endemic occurring only on one of the islands.

Table 3. Fauna of ptyctimous mites of the islands (Reunion, Comoro Islands, Seychelles, Mauritius) neighbouring to Madagascar

The fauna of neighbouring islands is closely related to that of Madagascar. More than half of the number of species (17) occurs also in Madagascar. The absence of three pantropical species occurring on the islands is rather accidental.

Mahunka (1988a) has noted a high degree of relationship of the fauna of these islands with that of the Oriental Region and some similarity with that of the Pacific Region, which is greater than with the fauna of Madagascar and Afrotropical Region. However, he was aware of the fact that the amount of the study material was fragmentary and insufficient.

The results presented in this monograph do not confirm the relations reported by Mahunka (1988a). None of the species found in the fauna of eastern islands shows oriental origin or pacific islands origin. Indeed, 14 species of the islands are found also in the oriental and pacific regions, but these are widespread species, semicosmopolitan and pantropical.

Changes in the MAG fauna after 12 years
In 2004 I summed up the studies on ptyctimous mites of MAG providing also the faunistic and zoogeographic analysis (Niedbala 2004c).

At that time I recorded 57 species of ptyctimous mites, including two Mesoplophoridae, 18 Euphthiracaroidea and 37 species of Phthiracaroidea. At present, twice as many species are known in each of the distinguished superfamilies of ptyctimous mites. It is interesting to find out in which way the enrichment of the species material influenced the faunistic proportions.

After 12 years and twice the increase in the number of species, certain features of the MAG fauna remain the same or similar, as listed below.

The number of genera: seven genera of Phthiracaroidea, 6 genera of Euphthiracaroidea.

As in the present fauna also in 2004 more than half of Phthiracaroidea species belonged to Notophthiracarus and Hoplophorella and more than half of Euphthiracaroidea species belonged to Oribotritia and Acrotritia.

The proportions of species representing the two families of Euphthiracaroidea: more primitive Oribotritiidae and less primitive Euphthiracaridae, they are similar as in 2004.

Among Phthiracaroidea more primitive Phthiracaridae are now and were in 2004 less numerous than Steganacaridae.

Relative ratio (in %) of the number of species representing Mesoplophoridae: Euphthiracaroidea: Phthiracaroidea in 2001 was 3: 32: 65. At present, it is similar 5: 27: 66.

The number of species common for MAG and continental Africa was 11 % in 2004 and at present is 15 %.

The percentage contribution of indigenous species was 17 % in 2004 and now 18%.

Endemism of Phthiracaroidea to Euphthiracaroidea was similar in 2004 and equal 62 % and 59 % of endemites, in the present fauna these proportions are slightly different equal to 63 and 53 %.

Species of the genera Steganacarus, Euphthiracarus (Pocsia) and Indotritia (Afrotritia) whose centre of speciation probably is continental Africa, do not occur on the islands now and did not occur there in 2004.

The differences in the fauna observed over 12 years:

At present the number of exclusive species (i.e. occurring exclusively on the islands) is 88 species (80 %) and hence is higher than in 2004 – 36 species (63 %).

At present there are a bit more endemic species among Phthiracaroidea – 68 (61 %), while in 2004 there were 30 species (53 %).

In 2004 three species M. (P.) leviseta, Bukitritia timah and A. spiculifera were classified as perhaps oriental origin, while among the Phthiracaroidea none of the species. At present the fauna of MAG includes three more oriental species M. (M.) invisitata, A. divida and P. crispus.

The similarity between the faunas of Madagascar and neighbouring islands was low in 2004, only two species were common, but now over half of the species found on the neighbouring islands also occur on Madagascar.

Summary

Fauna of ptyctimous mites from Madagascar and neighbouring islands Seychelles, Mauritius, Comoros and Reunion (MAG) comprises 111 species for which morphological diagnoses have been made. On the basis of the typical material 44 species have been redescribed. Nine species are new to MAG, while four are new to Afrotropical Region.

The numbers of species in particular genera and subgenera are proportional to the corresponding numbers representing the faunas of other zoogeographic regions of southern hemisphere.

Keys for identification of species and higher taxa have are presented.

Relative number of species in the main groups of ptyctimous mites, Protoplophoridae and Archoplophoridae, that is the ratio of Mesoplophoridae: Euphthiracaroidea: Phthiracaroidea is 2: 5: 27: 66 and these proportions are similar as in the faunas of Neotropical and Afrotropical Regions.

From among Euphthiracaroidea, the number of species in the families Oribotritiidae (13) and Euphthiracaridae (17) are relatively similar as in the fauna of Neotropical and Afrotropical Regions. Phthiracaroidea, similarly as in the faunas of Neotropical, Oriental and Afrotropical Regions, are represented by a significantly smaller number of the more primitive Phthiracaridae (10 species) than Steganacaridae (63 species).

Within Euphthiracaroidea the most numerous in species are the genera: Oribotritia (it is similarly numerous in the fauna of Australasian Region) and Acrotritia (of higher relative number of species than in other zoogeographic regions). The most numerous genus from Phthiracaroidea is Notophthiracarus, which is relatively numerous also in the other regions: Australasian, South Africa and Afrotropical. Phthiracarus and Hoplophorella are represented by a medium number of species, of relative number similar to that in Afrotropical Region.

High number of species directly related to MAG (88), that is the numbers of indigenous (18 %) and endemic (61 %) species are comparable to the contribution of such species in the faunas of Afrotropical and Neotropical Regions. Pantropical species are also relatively numerous and their relative abundance is similar to that in the fauna of Oriental Region (10 %).

The similarity of the fauna of MAG (111 species) to the fauna of Afrotropical Region (200 species) is much higher (15 % common species) than to the fauna of Oriental Region (262 species) (4 % common species). The fauna of MAG shows no similarity to that of India.

In the years 2010-2015 new soil samples (171) were collected on Madagascar and they contained 78 species. The high number of endemic species among the dominants and high-frequency species confirm the unique character of the fauna of Madagascar. In the newly collected samples, the most abundantly represented and most frequent species is O. striata, slightly lower values of these indices were found for five other endemic species: P. araios, O. mahunkai, I. paulyi, N. similis and N. zebrus and two pantropical: A. vestita and I. javensis.

Qualitative and quantitative data indicate that the richest in species is eastern part of the Island. In the samples from this part 67 species were found, while in the samples from northern part – 53 species and in central part – 34 species. The strongest endemism was found in the eastern and central parts of the island, in the eastern part the number of endemites was 20 species per 26 of exclusive species.

Ecosystems of eastern part of Madagascar are richer, more diverse and not so devastated as in western part.

Number of species found only on neighbouring islands of Madagascar is 30. Seven species are endemic occurring only in one of the islands but more than half of the number of species (17) occur also on Madagascar.

The fauna of MAG was evaluated in 2004. After 12 years the number of species found doubled (mainly as a result of the descriptions of new species by Mahunka and Niedbala, Starý), however certain features of the fauna remained the same. These features are the proportions of number of genera and species, the number of species common to the faunas of MAG and continental Africa, the contribution of indigenous and endemic species, absence of species of the taxa: Steganacarus, Euphthiracarus (Pocsia) and Indotritia (Afrotritia) whose centre of probable speciation is the continental Africa. The differences observed after 12 years include a higher number of species occurring exclusively on the neighbouring islands outside Madagascar, a marked increase in the number of species common for Madagascar and for neighbouring islands, and in MAG an increase in the number of species classified as of oriental origin.

Acknowledgements

I am much grateful to Dr. J. Starý from Institute of Soil Biology, Ceské Budejovice for the loan of rich material used in this study.

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Appendix

List of new localities in Madagascar, collected in 2010-2015 with the species and specimens found

1. N Madagascar; Montagne d'Ambre National Park, Montagne de Francais

MAG-265, Montagne d'Ambre NP, 12°31'28''S, 49°09'52''E, circuit Ampijoroana, evergreen rain forest, altitude 950 m, a.s.l., sifting of forest leaf litter sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 7 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson O. striata (5), A. rustica (2), M. tropica (1), P. crispus (1), A. (H.) andrei (1)

MAG-268, Montagne d'Ambre NP, 12°31'28''S, 49°09'52''E, circuit Ampijoroana, evergreen rain forest, altitude 950 m, a.s.l., sifting of forest leaf litter sample under big tree, Winkler apparatus extraction, 7 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson O. striata (11), A. rustica (1), P. crispus (1), P. mahunkai (5), N. andasibensis (1)

MAG-269, Montagne d'Ambre NP, 12°31'28''S, 49°09'52''E, circuit Ampijoroana, evergreen rain forest, 950 m a.s.l., sifting of forest leaf litter sample under Pandanus sp., Winkler apparatus extraction, 7 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson O. striata (23), E. paranetron (1), A. rustica (1), P. mahunkai (12), N. echinus (1)

MAG-266, Montagne d'Ambre NP, 12°31'28''S, 49°09'52''E, circuit Ampijoroana, evergreen rain forest, 940 m a.s.l., sifting of forest leaf litter sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 7 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (7)

MAG-267, Montagne d'Ambre National Park, 12°31'28''S, 49°09'52''E, circuit Ampijoroana, evergreen rain forest, 935 m a.s.l., sifting of forest leaf litter sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 7 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson O. striata (9), A. paraardua (3), A. veteratorius (1), P. mahunkai (4), N. andasibensis (1)

MAG-275, Montagne d'Ambre National Park, 12°31'28''S, 49°09'52''E, circuit Sommet, evergreen rain forest, 945 m a.s.l., sifting of leaf litter and rotten wood sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 14 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (ca 180), A. paraardua (2), P. anonymus (1), P. mahunkai (5), N. similis (11)

MAG-274, Montagne d'Ambre National Park, 12°31'28''S, 49°09'52''E, circuit Ampijoroana, evergreen rain forest, 950 m a.s.l., sifting of leaf litter sample under big tree, Winkler apparatus extraction, 13 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. paraspinosa (ca 300), A. paraardua (4), A. rustica (12), M. tropica (2), P. anonymus (12), P. crispus (13), H. paratryssos (3), A. inelegans (2), P. mahunkai (51), N. similis (3), A, (H.) paralemurius – (1)

MAG-276, Montagne d'Ambre National Park, 12°31'58''S, 49°10'33''E, evergreen rain forest, 1100 m a.s.l., sifting of leaf litter close to camp sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 16 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (ca 300), A. paraardua (11), A. vestita (4), P. anonymus (2), P. mahunkai (23),N. micidus (10)

MAG-006, Montagne d'Ambre NP, 1100 m a.s.l., montane forest, litter sifting, 30 Oct. 2010, leg. P. Banar

O. mahunkai (2), O. striata (37), A. ardua (1), A. divida (19), P. ochthus (15), N. andasibensis (3), N. parasomalicus (ca 150), N. similis (34)

MAG-270, Montagne d'Ambre National Park, 12°31'52''S, 49°10'17''E, circuit Sommet, 1169 m a.s.l., evergreen rain forest, sifting of fern residues sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 8 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson O. striata (10)

MAG-271, Montagne d'Ambre National Park, 12°31'52''S, 49°10'17''E, circuit Sommet, 1169 m a.s.l., evergreen rain forest, sifting of forest litter sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 8 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson O. striata (ca 50), A. rustica (5), A. vestita (1), M. tropica (2), P. crispus (11), N. similis (2)

MAG-273, Montagne d'Ambre National Park, 12°31'52''S, 49°10'17''E, circuit Sommet, 1169 m a.s.l., evergreen rain forest, sifting of Pandanus sp. sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 12 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson O. striata (27), A. paraardua (1), A. rustica (2), P. mahunkai (10), N. similis (1), A. (H.) parastenos (1)

MAG-272, Montagne d'Ambre National Park, 12°32'14''S, 49°10'28''E, circuit Sommet, 1120 m a.s.l., evergreen rain forest, altitude, sifting of Pandanus sp. litter sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 8 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (7), A. rustica (1), M. tropica (1), N. echinus (1), N. parasomalicus (2)

MAG-280, Montagne de Francais, 12°20'11''S, 49°20'15''E, 180 m a.s.l., seasonal deciduous forest, sifting of leaf litter under tree, very dry sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 18 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (2), A. ardua (3), P. kugohi (3), A. sculptilis (3), N. similis (1), A. (H.) hamatus (1), A. (H.) oblongus (1), A. (H.) vitrinus (1)

MAG-279, Montagne de Francais, 12°19'28''S, 49°20'35''E, 200 m a.s.l., seasonal deciduous forest, sifting of leaf litter under big tree sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 18 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

I. javensis – (12), A. ardua (8), A. vestita (7), P. kugohi (14), A. sculptilis (10), N. similis (3), A. (H.) oblongus (1)

MAG-281, Montagne de Francais, 12°19'23''S, 49°33'92''E, 250 m a.s.l., seasonal deciduous forest, sifting of leaf litter on rock sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 19 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

P. armadillo (ca 100), O. spinosa (4), O. paraspinosa (26), O. striata (3), I. javensis (ca 110), A. ardua (17), A. vestita (32), P. anonymus (1), P. kugohi (ca 70), P. machadoi (1), P. persimilis (3), A. sculptilis (ca 260), P. mahunkai (ca 80), N. similis (4), A. (H.) hamatus – (7), A. (H.) oblongus (33), A. (H.) paralemurius (1), A. (H.) stilifer (1), A. (H.) vitrinus (1)

MAG-278, Montagne de Francais, 12°19'28''S, 49°20'35''E, 320 m a.s.l., seasonal deciduous forest, sifting of leaf litter on the rock sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 18 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (1), O. mahunkai (4), I. javensis (8), A. ardua (3), A. vestita (1), P. kugohi (4), A. sculptilis (3), A. (H.) oblongus (4)

MAG-277, Montagne de Francais, 12°19'26''S, 49°20'41''E, 350 m a.s.l., seasonal deciduous forest, sifting of leaf litter and rotten wood sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 18 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

P. armadillo (ca 55), O. paraspinosa (12), I. javensis (15), A. ardua (12), A. vestita (10), P. kugohi (46), A. phoxos (5), A. sculptilis (5), N. similis (1), A. (H.) cucullatus (1), A. (H.) hamatus (3), A. (H.) oblongus (8), A. (H.) vitrinus (4)

Totally – 18 samples:

P. armadillo (ca 150), O. mahunkai (6), O. paraspinosa (ca 330), O. spinosa (4), O. striata (ca 600), I. javensis (ca 120), A. ardua (41), A. divida (19), A. paraardua (21), A. rustica (24), A. vestita (54), M. tropica (4), P. anonymus (15), P. crispus (26), P. ochthus (15), P. kugohi (77), P. machadoi (1), P. persimilis (3), H. paratryssos (3), A. inelegans (2), A. phoxos (5), A. sculptilis (ca 280), A. veteratorius (1), P. mahunkai (110), N. andasibensis (5), N. echinus (2), N. micidus (10), N. parasomalicus (ca 150), N. similis – 60, A. (H.) cucullatus (1), A. (H.) hamatus (11), A. (H.) oblongus (42), A. (H.) paralemurius (2), A. (H.) parastenos (1), A. (H.) stilifer (1), A. (H.) vitrinus (6)

2. NW Madagascar, Ankarafantsika National Park

MAG-011, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'05,9"S, 46°49'06,4"E, 71 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 23 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson O. mahunkai (1), I. javensis (1), A. paradikra (5), A. rustica (1), A. vestita (5), I. tripartita (1), P. paracrispus (1)

MAG-019, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°17'32,9"S, 46°48'38,1"E, 75 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 25 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson A. paradikra (53), P. baloghorum (2), P. kugohi (2), A. (H.) stilifer (4)

MAG-050, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'47.5"S, 46°48'57.3"E, 78 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 25 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson

A. paradikra (54), P. kugohi (2)

MAG-049, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'47.0"S, 46°48'57.1"E, 79 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 25 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson

A. paradikra (4)

MAG-015, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'10,7"S, 46°48'47,1"E, 81 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 23 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson M. (M.) africana (5), A. ardua (ca 160), A. paradikra (45), P. kugohi (ca 50), A. (H.) cucullatus (34), A. (H.) hamatus (6), A. (H.) stilifer (20), A. (H.) vitrinus (7)

MAG-046, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'12.0"S, 46°48'41.1"E, 81 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, old bark and rotten wood, 24 April 2011, leg. L.S.Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson

A. ardua (11), A. paradikra (45), P. kugohi (9), A. (H.) hamatus (12), A. (H.) stilifer (5), A. (H.) vitrinus (31)

MAG-047, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'09.0"S, 46°48'55.6"E, 83 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 24 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson

A. rostralis (2), M. (M.) africana (11), A. ardua (59), A. paradikra (10), P. machadoi (2), A. (H.) cucullatus (1), A. (H.) hamatus (6), A. (H.) vitrinus (6)

MAG-048, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'47.7"S, 46°48'57.1"E, 83 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 25 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson

A. ardua (4), A. paradikra (ca 45), P. kugohi (2), P. machadoi (1), A. (H.) hamatus (16), A. (H.) stilifer (8), A. (H.) vitrinus (31)

MAG-045, Ankarafantsika NP, GPS 16°18'09.9"S, 46°48'39.3"E, 87 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 23 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson

A. rostralis (4), M. (M) invisitata (2), O. striata (3), A. ardua (24), A. paradikra (35), P. kugohi (9), P. machadoi (1), A. (H.) hamatus (4), A. (H.) stilifer (15), A. (H.) vitrinus (20)

MAG-052, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°17'32.6"S, 46°48'41.7"E, 88 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 25 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson

O. breviseta (5), O. mahunkai (2), O. striata (10), I. paulyi (15), A. paradikra (7), N. andasibensis (1), N. parasomalicus (1)

MAG-018, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'46,7"S, 46°48'57,9"E, 88 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 25 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson A. paradikra (19)

MAG-043, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'46.6"S, 46°48'58.8"E, 89 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 22 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson

A. paradikra (8)

MAG-010, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°17'37,9"S, 46°48'43,2"E, 92 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 25 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson

O. striata (2), A. paradikra (6)

MAG-040, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'57,2"S, 46°48'41,1"E, 124 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 22 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina, P. Banar and R. Raveloson A. rostralis (5), M. (M.) africana (4), A. paradikra (5), P. kugohi (2), A. (H.) hamatus (1)

MAG-041, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'55.9"S, 46°48'44.1"E, 134 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter and rotten wood, 22 April 2011, leg. R. Raveloson

A. rostralis (35), M. (M.) africana (16), A. ardua (6), A. paradikra (11), A. (H.) stilifer (2)

MAG-042, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'57.1"S, 46°48'43.4"E, 140 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter and rotten wood, 22 April 2011, leg. L.S.Rahanitriniaina

P. armadillo (1), M. (M.) africana (1), A. paradikra (5)

MAG-284, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'33"S, 46°48'23"E, 75 m a.s.l., close to main entrance of circuit Source de vie, 24 Jan. 2015, seasonal forest of western typ, altitude sifting of forest leaf litter sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 24 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

M. (M.) africana (29), O. striata (7), I. javensis (6), A. ardua (10), A. rustica (8), A. vestita (4), P. machadoi (5), A. (H.) hamatus (4), A. (H.) stilifer (2), A. (H.) vitrinus (7)

MAG-282, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'12.0"S, 46°48'47.4"E, 81 m a.s.l., circuit Source de vie, seasonal forest of western type, sifting of forest leaf litter under big tree sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 24 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (ca 120), P. kugohi (22), A. (H.) hamatus (8), A. (H.) vitrinus (4)

MAG-283, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'23"S, 46°48'56"E, 85 m a.s.l., circuit Source de vie marking 500 m, seasonal forest of western type, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 24 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (ca 300), A. ardua (5), A. vestita (2), P. kugohi (5), P. machadoi (12)

MAG-286, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°19'05"S, 46°48'03"E, 85 m a.s.l., circuit Source de vie, marking 1100m, seasonal forest of western type, sifting of forest leaf litter under big tree sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 25 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

I. javensis (ca 400), A. paradikra (10), P. kugohi (15), P. machadoi (6), A. sculptilis (3), P. mahunkai (18), A. (H.) oblongus (1), A. (H.) vitrinus (3)

MAG-285, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'52"S, longitude 46°48'11"E, 90 m a.s.l., circuit Source de vie, marking 1500 m, seasonal forest of western type, sifting of forest leaf litter under big tree sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 25 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

M. (M.) africana (3), I. javensis (17), A. paradikra (3), A. vestita (1), P. kugohi (4), P. machadoi (5), A. (H.) hamatus (8), A. (H.) vitrinus (3)

MAG-288, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°19'03"S, 46°48'22"E, 95 m a.s.l., end of circuit Extension Baobab, crossin woth Source de vie, seasonal forest of western type, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 25 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (ca 300), P. machadoi (ca 30), P. mahunkai (ca 20)

MAG-287, Ankarafantsika NP, 16°18'55"S, 46°48'05"E, 95 m a.s.l., circuit Extension Baobab, marking 300 m, seasonal forest of western typy, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 25 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

I. javensis (ca 250), A. paradikra (2), A. rustica (4), P. machadoi (1), A. sculptilis (1), P. mahunkai (220), A. (H.) vitrinus (2)

Totally – 23 samples:

A. rostralis (46), P. armadillo (1), M. (M.) africana (69), M. (M.) invisitata (2), O. breviseta (5), O. mahunkai (3), O. striata (ca 740), I. javensis (23), I. paulyi (15), I. tripartita (1), A. ardua (ca 280), A. paradikra (ca 340), A. rustica (13), A. vestita (12), P. baloghorum (2), P. paracrispus (1), P. kugohi (ca 100), P. machadoi (ca 60), A. sculptilis (4), P. mahunkai (ca 260), N. andasibensis (1), N. parasomalicus (1), A (H.) cucullatus (35), A. (H.) hamatus (65), A. (H.) oblongus (1), A. (H.) stilifer (56), A. (H.) vitrinus – (ca 110)

3. E Madagascar, Reservation Expérimentale de Vohimana

MAG-112, Madagascar, Reservation Expérimentale de Vohimana, 18°55'13.6"S, 48°30'57.9"E, 772 m a.s.l., sifting of forest litter sample in rock ravine, 27 Nov. XI.2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina, P. Banar

O. striata (35), A. rustica (13), A. vestita (14), M. tropica (1), P. lentulus (7), A. veteratorius (1), N. similis (ca 90)

MAG-111, Madagascar, Reservation Expérimentale de Vohimana, 18°55'13.7"S, 48°30'50.8"E, 776 m a.s.l., sifting of forest litter sample, 27 Nov. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina, P. Banar

O. breviseta (3), O. striata (30), A. paraardua (2), A. rustica (5), A. vestita (24), P. lentulus (4), A. inelegans (4), N. reticularis (16), N. similis (4), N. zebrus (9)

Totally – 2 samples:

O. breviseta (3), O. striata (65), A. paraardua (2), A. rustica (18), A. vestita (38), M. tropica (1), (1), (1), P. lentulus (11), A. inelegans (4), A. veteratorius (1), N. reticularis (16), N. similis (94), N. zebrus (9)

4. C Madagascar, Ambohitantely Special Reserve

MAG-127, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'52.5"S, 47°17'21.2"E, 1476 m a.s.l., under big rock by stream, sifting of forest litter sample, 2 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. mahunkai (20), O. striata (31), O. virgulata (16), A. rustica (12), M. tropica (1), P. araios (ca 60), N. zebrus (12)

MAG-098, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'53.3"S, 47°17'22.4"E, 1482 m a.s.l., sifting of forest litter sample, 18 Nov. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina I. paulyi (15), A. ardua (1), A. rustica (20), P. baloghorum (10), P. araios (12), N. zebrus (8)

MAG-130, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'53.5"S, 47°17'22.3"E, 1490 m a.s.l., Pandanus sp. growth near river, sifting of forest litter sample, 2 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (2), O. virgulata (1), I. javensis (3), I. paulyi (14), A. rustica (4), P. baloghorum (1), P. araios (1), N. zebrus (2)

MAG-106, North of Manankazo village, 18°09'15.1"S, 47°12'39.6"E, 1491 m a.s.l., sifting of forest litter sample, 25 Nov. 2011, leg. P. Banar

O. mahunkai (ca 70), A. ardua (1), A. vestita (ca 130), M. tropica (1)

MAG-129, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'52.3"S, 47°17'21.3"E, 1493 m a.s.l., bamboo and Pandanus sp, growth, sifting of forest litter sample, 2 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (1), I. paulyi (21), P. baloghorum (3), P. araios (18), N. parasomalicus (1), N. zebrus (5), A. (H.) distinctus (2)

MAG-097, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'52.6"S, 47°17'22.5"E, 1497 m a.s.l., sifting of forest litter sample, 18 Nov. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (15), O. virgulata (6), I. paulyi (5), A. rustica (14), M. hauseri (3), M. tropica (1), P. baloghorum (3), P. araios (4), N. zebrus (10)

MAG-099, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'56.9"S, 47°17'21.9"E, 1497 m a.s.l., sifting of forest litter sample, 18 Nov. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. mahunkai (28), O. striata (5), O. virgulata (3), I. javensis (7), A. vestita (28), M. stratissima (1), M. tropica (2), P. baloghorum (15), P. araios (5), N. pandanensis (7), N. similis (8), N. zebrus (13), A. (H.) distinctus (3), A. (H.) lemurius (2)

MAG-105, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'56.9"S, 47°17'21.9"E, 1497 m a.s.l., sifting of forest litter sample, 23 Nov. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina O. mahunkai (ca 60), O. striata (12), O. virgulata (5), I. javensis (14), P. baloghorum (7), P. araios (20), N. pandanensis (4), N. zebrus (6), A. (H.) distinctus (3)

MAG-128, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'52.3"S, 47°17'21.3"E, 1500 m a.s.l., sifting litter sample by stream, 2 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (30), O. virgulata (5), I. javensis (9), I. paulyi (4), A. rustica (10), M. tropica (1), P. baloghorum (7), P. araios (ca 70), N. similis (4), N. zebrus (6), A. (H.) distinctus (3), A. (H.) lemurius (2)

MAG-028, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'53,6"S, 47°17'22,4"E, 1503 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter near waterfall, 19 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson O. virgulata (3), I. paulyi (5), M. tropica (1), P. araios (3)

MAG-131, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'53.9"S, 47°17'22.4"E, 1518 m a.s.l., forest near waterfall, sifting of forest litter sample, 2 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. virgulata (2), I. javensis (14), A. rustica (2), P. araios (10), N. parasomalicus (1), N. zebrus (35), A. (H.) paralemurius (1)

MAG-132, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'58.3"S, 47°17'22.2"E, 1518 m a.s.l., under palm tree near waterfall, sifting of forest litter sample, 3 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (3), I. paulyi (5), A. paraardua (1), A. rustica (2), P. araios (8), N. zebrus (22)

MAG-133, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'58.2"S, 47°17'22.9"E, 1522 m a.s.l., sifting of forest litter sample near river, 3 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. mahunkai (9), O. virgulata (8), I. paulyi (14), A. rustica (10), P. baloghorum (1), P. araios (1), N. zebrus (8)

MAG-134, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'58.4"S, 47°17'22.6"E, 1525 m a.s.l., under Pandanus sp. and big tree, sifting of forest litter sample, 3 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (21), O. virgulata (2), I. javensis (5), I. paulyi (24), A. rustica (6), M. tropica (2), P. baloghorum (12), P. araios (10), N. zebrus (20), A. (H.) distinctus (5), A. (H.) lemurius (4)

MAG-031, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'51,8"S, 47°17'03,5"E, 1533 m a.s.l., forest edge, sifting sample of forest litter, 19 April 2011, leg. P. Banar and R. Raveloson O. mahunkai (8), O. striata (2), A. granulata (1), M. tropica (2), N. zebrus (1)

MAG-027, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'53,1"S, 47°17'22,4"E, 1536 m a.s.l., dense forest, sifting sample of forest litter,19 April 2011, leg. R. Raveloson O. striata (1), O. virgulata (1), I. paulyi (1), P araios (1)

MAG-135, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'57.6"S, 47°17'19.7"E, 1544 m a.s.l., sifting of forest litter and dry fern sample, 3 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. mahunkai (4), A. paradikra (6), P. baloghorum (1), N. parasomalicus (19), A. (H.) distinctus (13)

MAG-088, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'49.1"S, 47°17'05.6"E, 1547 m a.s.l., sifting of forest litter sample, 16-17 Nov. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina, P. Banar

O. striata (ca 40), O. virgulata (8), A. vestita (ca 80), M. tropica (10), P. baloghorum (6), P. araios (ca 90), N. zebrus (ca 20)

MAG-136, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'57.3"S, 47°17'17.2"E, 1565 m a.s.l. sifting of forest litter sample, 3 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina O. mahunkai (2), A. rustica (1), A. vestita (17), M. tropica (1), P. baloghorum (5), P. araios (1), N. pandanensis (5), N. parasomalicus (13), N. similis (2)

MAG-137, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'02.2"S, 47°17'13.3"E, 1565 m a.s.l., under Pandanus sp., sifting of forest litter sample, 4 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

I. javensis (14), P. baloghorum (1), N. parasomalicus (9), N. similis (1), A. (H.) distinctus (22)

MAG-138, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'04.8"S, 47°17'11.8"E, 1598 m a.s.l., big tree growth, sifting of forest litter sample, 4 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (14), O. virgulata (5), I. javensis (4), I. paulyi (7), A. vestita (ca 40), N. similis (8), A. (H.) distinctus (ca 40)

MAG-090, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'56.5"S, 47°17'26.1"E, 1561 m a.s.l., palm tree and big rotten trunk sifting of forest litter sample, 17 Nov. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (3), A. ardua (1), A. rustica (7), P. baloghorum (4), P. araios (13), N. zebrus (13)

MAG-124, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'46.4"S, 47°17'09.9"E, 1570 m a.s.l., under Pandanus sp., sifting of forest litter sample, 1 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (6), A. rustica (6), P. baloghorum (3), P. araios (25), N. pandanensis (18), N. zebrus (7), A. (H.) mahunkai (9)

MAG-125, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'46.4"S, 47°17'09.9"E, 1570 m a.s.l., under Pandanus sp., sifting of forest litter sample, 1 Nov. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (1), I. paulyi (6), A. rustica (2), P. baloghorum (1), P. araios (ca 50), N. zebrus (8), N. parasomalicus (1), A. (H.) mahunkai (1)

MAG-029, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'02,5"S, 47°17'12,9"E, 1577 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 19 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (4), N. parasomalicus (3), N. similis (1), A. (H.) balazsi (1), A. (H.) distinctus (1)

MAG-024, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'51,7"S, 47°17'21,6"E, 1593 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 19 Nov. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson O. mahunkai (1), O. virgulata (3), I. paulyi (1), P araios (4), N. zebrus (3)

MAG-025, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'51,7"S, 47°17'21,6"E, 1593 m a.s.l., sifting sample of dry material under rock, 19 Nov. 2011, leg. R. Raveloson O. striata (3), O. virgulata (2)

MAG-026, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°10'51,7"S, 47°17'21,6"E, 1593 m a.s.l., sifting sample of wet alluvia by stream, 19 Nov. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (1), O. virgulata (2), I. paulyi (1), A. granulata (1), N. zebrus (1)

MAG-103, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'48.6"S, 47°17'05.7"E, 1593 m a.s.l., wet material near stream, sifting of forest litter sample, 21 Nov. 2011, leg. P. Banar

O. mahunkai (6), I. javensis (4), I. paulyi (1), M. tropica (1), P. araios (2)

MAG-093, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'48.5"S, 47°17'09.3"E, 1595 m a.s.l., under Pandanus sp., sifting of very dry forest litter sample, 17 Nov. 2011, leg. P. Banar

O. mahunkai (4), I. javensis (15), A. vestita (2), P. baloghorum (5), P. araios (12)

MAG-094, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'48.5"S, 47°17'09.3"E, 1595 m a.s.l., sifting of forest litter sample, 8 Nov. 2011, leg. P. Banar

O. mahunkai (8), O. striata (3), O. virgulata (2), I. javensis (12), P. baloghorum (5), P. araios (ca 30), N pandanensis (2), N. similis (1)

MAG-096, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'48.9"S, 47°17'12.3"E, 1600 m a.s.l., under palm tree, sifting of forest litter sample, 18 Nov. 2011, leg. P. Banar

O. mahunkai (ca 120), O. virgulata (2), I. javensis (18), M. hauseri (1), M. stratissima (1), M. tropica (7), P. anonymus (3), P. baloghorum (6), P. araios (ca 70), N. zebrus (8), tritonymph (1)

MAG-033, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'48,9"S, 47°17'10,5"E, 1602 m a.s.l., sifting sample of plant residues under palm tree, 19 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson O. mahunkai (22), M. tropica (1), P. baloghorum (4), P. araios (6)

MAG-149, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'52.1"S, 47°17'09.7"E, 1603 m a.s.l., under Pandanus sp., sifting of forest litter sample, 6 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. spinosa (16), O. striata (4), I. javensis (2), P. tanzicus (1)

MAG-087, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'52.7"S, 47°17'00.4"E, 1603 m a.s.l., under big Pandanus sp., sifting of forest litter sample, 16 Nov. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and P. Banar

O. brevisetosa (4), O. mahunkai (23), O. virgulata (13), I. javensis (14), I. paulyi (ca 40), M. tropica (2), P. baloghorum (4), P. araios (25), N. zebrus (13), A. (H.) mahunkai (4)

MAG-122, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'45.1"S, 47°17'13.4"E, 1604 m a.s.l., under Pandanus sp., sifting of forest litter sample, 1 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

M. tropica (7), P. araios (1), N. zebrus (5)

MAG-123, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'44.2"S, 47°17'12.2"E, 1608 m a.s.l., under Pandanus sp., sifting of forest litter sample, 1 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. mahunkai (8), I. javensis (2), M. tropica (1), P. baloghorum (2), P. araios (25), N. pandanensis (4), N zebrus (2)

MAG-017, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'44,6"S, 47°17'13,3"E, 1609 m a.s.l., sifting sample of plant residues under Pandanus sp., 19 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson O. striata (4), P. araios (7)

MAG-039, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'44,8"S, 47°17'14,2"E, 1609 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter and plant residues under Pandanus sp., 20 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson O. striata (1), P. araios (9), N. similis (1)

MAG-013, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'44,6"S, 47°17'13,3"E, 1609 m a.s.l., sifting sample of plant residues under Pandanus sp., 19 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson

O. paraspinosa (1), O. striata (4), N. parasummersi (1)

MAG-038, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'43,1"S, 47°17'16,1"E, 1613 m a.s.l., secondary forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 20 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson O. mahunkai (1), M. tropica (2)

MAG-104, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'48.7"S, 47°17'11.3"E, 1614 m a.s.l., under group of palm trees, sifting of forest litter sample, 22 Nov. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina, P. Banar

O. mahunkai (ca 60), O striata (ca 30), I. javensis (ca 20), A. vestita (ca 30), M. tropica (1), P. baloghorum (1), P. araios (ca 20), N. pandanensis (ca 40)

MAG-139, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'10.7"S, 47°17'08.3"E, 1620 m a.s.l., under Pandanus sp., sifting of forest litter sample, 4 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

I. javensis (9), I. paulyi (7), A. vestita (1), A. (H.) distinctus (2), N. parasomalicus (1)

MAG-032, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'31,0"S, 47°17'06,9"E, 1620 m a.s.l., secondary forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 19 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. mahunkai (16), O. striata (1), A. paradikra (2), P. baloghi (2), N. parasomalicus (5)

MAG-102, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'42.6"S, 47°17'10.8"E, 1620 m a.s.l., under Pandanus sp., sifting of forest litter sample, 21 Nov. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina O. mahunkai (ca 50), O. striata (7), I. javensis (4), P. araios (ca 40), N. zebrus (12)

MAG-126, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'48.8"S, 47°17'10.7"E, 1621 m a.s.l., under palm tree sifting of forest litter sample, 1 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. mahunkai (6), P. araios (10)

MAG-100, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'22.7"S, 47°17'07.8"E, 1623 m a.s.l., under Pandanus sp., sifting of forest litter sample, 21 Nov. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (19), O. virgulata (3), M. tropica (7), P. baloghorum (3), N. pandanensis (3), N. similis (3), N. zebrus (2)

MAG-030, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'11,0"S, 47°17'08,5"E, 1624 m a.s.l., sifting sample of plant residues under Pandanus sp., 19 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina O. striata (9), O. virgulata (1), I. paulyi (4), M. tropica (1), N. pandanensis (1), N. parasomalicus (3), N. parilloi (1), A. (H.) balazsi (1), A. (H.) distinctus (1), A. (H.) distinctus (1)

MAG-140, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'21.6"S, 47°17'09.0"E, 1626 m a.s.l., under Pandanus sp., sifting of forest litter sample, 4 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. mahunkai (4), I. javensis (1), P araios (2), N. pandanensis (7), N. similis (4), N. zebrus (5), A. (H.) distinctus (2)

MAG-141, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'26.8"S, 47°17'04.9"E, 1626 m a.s.l., under bamboo, sifting of rotten wood and forest litter sample, 4 Sept. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (6), P. baloghorum (2), P. araios (7), N. pandanensis (35), N. zebrus (7)

MAG-035, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'31,0"S, 47°17'33,3"E, 1630 m a.s.l., secondary forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 20 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson O. mahunkai (1), O. striata (1), A. vestita (1), M. tropica (1), P. araios (7), N. parasomalicus (3)

MAG-034, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'22,4"S, 47°17'38,9"E, 1631 m a.s.l., secondary forest, sifting sample of forest litter and fern residues, 20 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson O. mahunkai (9), O. virgulata (3), A. rustica (2), P. araios (2)

MAG-037, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'43,1"S, 47°17'19,3"E, 1636 m a.s.l., secondary forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 20 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson O. mahunkai (12), M. striatissima (1), M. tropica (1), P. anonymus (1), P. baloghorum (1), P. mahunkai (1)

MAG-036, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'43,5"S, 47°17'23,1"E, 1636 m a.s.l., secondary forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 20 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson O. mahunkai (15), O. striata (1), O. virgulata (1), A. rustica (10), P. baloghorum (1), P. araios (1), N. parasomalicus (2)

MAG-089, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'42.9"S, 47°17'20.3"E, 1640 m a.s.l., sifting of forest litter sample, 17 Nov. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. mahunkai (10), O. striata (5), O. virgulata (11), A. paraardua (1), I. javensis (7), P. araios (6), N. pandanensis (3), N. zebrus (11)

MAG-014, Ambohitantely Special Reserve, 18°11'39,2"S, 47°17'12,6"E, 1674 m a.s.l., sifting sample of plant residues under Pandanus sp., 19 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson O. mahunkai (12), A. vestita (4), M. tropica (4), P. baloghorum (3), P. araios (1), N. parasomalicus (6)

Totally – 55 samples:

O. mahunkai (597), O. paraspinosa (1), O. striata (290), O. virgulata (104), I. javensis (182), I. paulyi (182), A. ardua (3), A. granulata (2), A. paraardua (2), A. paradikra (8), A. rustica (108), A. vestita (ca 333), M. hauseri (4), M. stratissima (3), M. tropica (58), P. anonymus (4), P. baloghorum (118), P. tanzicus (1), P. araios (689), P. mahunkai (1), N. pandanensis (129), N. parasomalicus (67), N. parasummersi (1), N. parilloi (1), N. similis (33), N. zebrus (265), A. (H.) balazsi (2), A. (H.) distinctus (88), A. (H.) lemurius (8), A. (H.) paralemurius (1), A. (H.) mahunkai (14), tritonymph (1)

5. Beforona commune

MAG-165, Beforona commune, 18°55'44.6"S, 48°31'18.8"E, 724 m a.s.l., Sandrasoa, semi-deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 13 June 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (7), A. vestita (2), N. micidus (1)

MAG-161, Beforona commune, 18°54'59.8"S, 48°30'50.1"E, 732 m a.s.l., Tsitiavary Vohimana, semi-deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 12 June 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (11), N. micidus (1)

MAG-164, Beforona commune, 18°55'44.2"S, 48°31'17.9"E, 741 m a.s.l., Sandrasoa, semi-deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 13 June 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata – 6

MAG-162, Beforona commune, 18°55'01.3"S, 48°30'55.0"E, 742 m a.s.l., Tsitiavary Vohimana, semi-deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 12 June 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

O. breviseta (3), O. striata (3), N. micidus (1)

MAG-168, Beforona commune, 18°56'58.1"S, 48°30'50.4"E, 762 m a.s.l., Ambavaniasy semi-deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 14 June 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (4), O. mahunkai (4), N. similis (1)

MAG-167, Beforona commune, 18°57'00.4"S, 48°30'49.2"E, 787 m a.s.l., Ambavaniasy semi-deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 14 June 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (6), O. mahunkai (17), I. javensis (6), A. veteratorius (1)

MAG-166, Beforona commune, 18°57'01.9"S, 48°30'48.1"E, 809 m a.s.l., Ambavaniasy semi-deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 14 June 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (14), O. mahunkai (8), A. vestita (2)

MAG-159, Beforona commune, 18°54'32.5"S, 48°30'00.4"E, 822 m a.s.l., Ambatondralanga, semi-deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 11 June 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

O. breviseta (3), O. striata (32), A. vestita (6), P. baloghorum (2)

MAG-158, Beforona commune, 18°54'34.6"S, 48°30'10.6"E, 877 m a.s.l., Ambatondralanga, semi-deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 10 June 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (10), A. vestita (1)

MAG-157, Beforona commune, 18°54'31.2"S, 48°30'18.8"E, 903 m a.s.l.,Ambatondralanga, semi-deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 10 June 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

O. paraspinosa (11), O. spinosa (22), O. striata (31), I. javensis (14), A. spiculifera (1), M. hauseri (1)

MAG-155, Beforona commune, 18°58'27.5"S, 48°30'27.1"E, 1088 m a.s.l., Ranomena semi-deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 8 June 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

O. spinosa (4), O. striata (13), I. javensis (7)

MAG-154, Beforona commune, 18°58'28.5" S, 48°30'25.4"E, 1103 m a.s.l., Ranomena semi-deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 8 June 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (9), I. javensis (40), M. stratissima (1), P. baloghorum (1), N. similis (2)

MAG-153, Beforona commune, 18°58'30.6"S, 48°30'53.4"E, 1130 m a.s.l., Vohidrazana semi-deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 6 June 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

O. spinosa (9), I. javensis (4), N. dispersus (2), N. micidus (1)

MAG-152, Beforona commune, 18°58'33.5"S, 48°30'57.2"E, 1153 m a.s.l., Vohidrazana semi-deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 6 June 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (5), I. javensis (3), E. (E.) duplex (1), N. micidus (1)

Totally – 14 samples:

O. breviseta (6), O. mahunkai (29), O. paraspinosa (11), O. spinosa (181), O. striata (5), I. javensis (74), E. (E.) duplex (1), A. spiculifera (1), A. vestita (11), M. hauseri (1), M. stratissima (1), P. baloghorum (3), A. veteratorius (1), N. dispersus (2), N. micidus (5), N. similis (3)

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6. Andasibe National Park

MAG-008, Andasibe NP, Circuit Indri 2, forest near creek, litter sifting, 3-6 Nov. 2010, leg. P. Banar and R.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. breviseta n. sp. (7), O. mahunkai (2), O. striata (78), O. virgulata (ca 90) I. paulyi (ca 90), I. tripartita (2), A. vestita (64), A. rustica (1), M. tropica (1), P. ochthus (8), N. andasibensis (10), N. echinus (1), N. quasisomalicus (1), N. reticularis (19) N. similis (4)

MAG-113, border of Andasibe NP, sifting of leaf litter sample, 29 Nov. 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (25), A. rustica (9), A. vestita (ca 40), P. anonymus (1), P. baloghorum (6), P. lentulus (5), A. veteratorius (1), N. echinus (10), N. similis (3)

MAG-054, Andasibe NP, forest edge near road to Andasive village, sifting sample of leaf litter, 9 April 2011, leg. P. Banar O. striata (1)

MAG-055, Andasibe NP, forest edge near road to Andasive village, sifting sample of rotten wood, 9 April 2011, leg. P. Banar

O. striata (22), I. paulyi (5)

MAG-056, Andasibe NP, edge of Parc d' Orchidées, sifting sample of plant residues, 9 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

A. refracta (1), N. reticularis (1)

MAG-058, Andasibe NP, edge of Parc d' Orchidées, sifting sample of forest litter, 9 April 2011, leg. P. Banar and L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. breviseta (35), O. striata (31), I. paulyi (2), A. spiculifera (1)

MAG-114, Andasibe NP, sifting of leaf litter sample, 2-5 May 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (ca 90), O. breviseta (3), A. paraardua (1), P. anonymus (1), P. ochthus (5), A. veteratorius (10), N. echinus (8), tritonymph (1)

MAG-062, Andasibe NP, 18°56'50.1"S, 48°25'22.3"E, 942 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter on path, 12 April 2011, leg. P. Banar and L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (1), I. paulyi (1)

MAG-059, Andasibe NP, 18°56'09.5"S, 48°25'08.2"E, 943 m a.s.l., forest edge, sifting sample of forest litter, 11 April 2011, leg. P. Banar and L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. breviseta (9), O. mahunkai (1), O. striata (1), N. reticularis (4)

MAG-061, Andasibe NP, 18°56'50.5"S, 48°25'22.4"E, 947 m a.s.l., sifting sample of shallow ravine, 11 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (14), I. javensis (1), A. paradikra (39), M. tropica (1), N. andasibensis (5), A. (H.) stilifer (1)

MAG-060, Andasibe NP, 18°56'50.5"S, 48°25'22.6"E, 948 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter in stream ravine without water, 11 April 2011, leg. P. Banar

O. breviseta (5), O. striata (9), I. paulyi (9), N. andasibensis (2), N. zebrus (1)

MAG-020, Andasibe NP, 18°56'2,5"S, 48°25'12,2"E, 951 m a.s.l., sifting sample of residues under Pandanus sp., 12 April 2011, leg. P. Banar and R.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. breviseta (20), M. (M.) africana (1), O. striata (12), A. spiculifera (2), P. baloghorum (1), N. andasibensis (7)

MAG-066, Andasibe NP, 18°56'24.8"S, 48°25'12.1"E, 947 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 12 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. breviseta (1), O. striata (14), M. tropica (1), P. crispus (2), N. andasibensis (1), N. echinus (2)

MAG-064, Andasibe NP, 18°56'30.4"S, 48°25'10.1"E, 954 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 12 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (11)

MAG-065, Andasibe NP, 18°56'31.1"S, 48°25'10.4"E, 961 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 12 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. breviseta (5), O. striata (30), N. andasibensis (3), N. similis (1)

MAG-063, Andasibe NP, 18°56'50.6"S, 48°25'22.2"E, 944 m a.s.l., sifting sample of forest litter, 12 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. breviseta (2), O. striata (15), I. paulyi (2), N. andasibensis (4)

MAG-119, Andasibe NP, 18°56'43.9"S, 48°25'15.0"E, 966 m a.s.l., Belle vue, sifting of forest litter sample, 2 May 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (8), A. rustica (3), A. veteratorius (8), N. echinus (1)

MAG-289, Andasibe-Mantadia NP, circuit Eulophia, marking 350 m, evergreen rain forest, sifting of leaf litter sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 28 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. striata (31), A. paraardua (6), A. vestita (5), P. anonymus (1), N. micidus (1)

MAG-291, Andasibe-Mantadia NP, circuit Eulophia, marking 550 m, evergreen rain forest, sifting of leaf litter and small branches of dead tree sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 28 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. breviseta (4), O. striata (ca 70), P. anonymus (1), P. machadoi (1), P. mahunkai (3), N. micidus (1), N. parasomalicus (1)

MAG-290, Andasibe-Mantadia NP, circuit Eulophia, marking 550m, evergreen rain forest, sifting of leaf litter sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 28 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. paraspinosa (63), A. vestita (1), M. tropica (2), P. baloghorum (1), N. echinus (2), N. parapaulianus (1)

MAG-292, Andasibe-Mantadia NP, Mantadia, circuit Tsakoka, evergreen rain forest, sifting of leaf litter under big tree sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 28 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. breviseta (9), O. striata (ca 50), I. javensis (ca 50), A. rustica (2), P. baloghorum (1), A. veteratorius (1)

MAG-294, Andasibe-Mantadia NP, 18°50'07"S, 48°26'22"E, about 1000 m a.s.l., Mantadia, circuit Rianasoa, path to Chute sacreé, evergreen rain forest, sifting of leaf litter, Winkler apparatus extraction, 29 Jan.2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. breviseta (12), O. striata (3), I. javensis (6), P. baloghorum (1), N. medius (2), N. parasomalicus (1)

MAG-293, Andasibe-Mantadia NP, 18°49'55"S, 48°26'24"E, about 1000 m a.s.l., Mantadia, circuit Rianasoa, evergreen rain forest, sifting of leaf litter by footpath sample, Winkler apparatus extraction, 29 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. breviseta (37), O. striata (8), I. javensis (9), A. sculptilis (4), N. reticularis (1)

MAG-295, Andasibe-Mantadia NP, 18°50'01"S, 48°26'18"E, about 1000 m a.s.l.,, Mantadia, circuit Rianasoa, evergreen rain forest, sifting of bamboo litter, Winkler apparatus extraction, 29 Jan. 2015, leg. P. Banar and E.M. Rabotoson

O. breviseta (ca 40), O. paraspinosa (ca 60), A. paraardua (1), A. rustica (6), A. vestita (3), M. tropica (3), P. baloghorum (1), N. micidus (7), N. parapaulianus (1), N. similis (1), A. (H.) hamatus (1)

Totally – 24 samples: M. (M.) africana (1), O. breviseta (ca 190), O. mahunkai (3), O. paraspinosa (ca 120), O. striata (ca 550), O. virgulata (ca 90), I. javensis (66), I. paulyi (109), I. tripartita (2), A. paraardua (8), A. paradikra (39), A. refracta (1), A. rustica (21), A. spiculifera (3), A. vestita (ca 110), M. tropica (8), P. anonymus (4), P. baloghorum (11), P. crispus (2), P. lentulus (5), P. ochthus (13), P. machadoi (1), A. veteratorius (11), P. mahunkai (3), N. andasibensis (32), N. echinus (24), N. medius (2), N. micidus (9), N. parapaulianus (2), N. parasomalicus (2), N. quasisomalicus (1), N. reticularis (33), N. similis (9), N. zebrus (1), A. (H.) hamatus (1), A. (H.) stilifer (1), tritonymph (1)

7. Ranomafana National Park

MAG-071, Ranomafana NP, 21°15'13.0"S, 47°25'13.0"E, 937 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting sample of forest soil and litter, 14 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson

O. striata (1), N. echinus (1)

MAG-012, Ranomafana NP, 960 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting by stream close to main entrance, 17 Nov. 2010, leg. P. Banar

O. mahunkai (3), O. striata (31), I. paulyi (5), I. tripartita (2), A. ardua (4), A. vestita (4)

MAG-204, Ranomafana NP, evergreen rain forest, 21°15'39.3"S, 47°25'19.1"E, 970 m a.s.l., sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 28 Sept. 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (1), A. rustica (4), A. vestita (15), P. baloghorum (2)

MAG-069, Ranomafana NP, 21°15'46.2"S, 47°25'12.0"E, 970 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 14 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson

O. mahunkai (6), P. baloghorum (1), P. anonymus (1), A. (A.) striculus (1)

MAG-021, Ranomafana NP, 21°15'46,1"S, 47°25'13,1"E, 983 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 14 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and R. Raveloson

O. striata (9), A. ardua (2), A. paradikra (1), A. refracta (3), M. tropica (2), H. paratryssos (1)

MAG-203, Ranomafana NP, Ambatolahidimy, evergreen rain forest, 21°15'40.4"S, 47°25'14.5"E, 994 m a.s.l., sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 27 Sept. 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (3), A. vestita (10), M. tropica (1), P. anonymus (1)

MAG-208, Ranomafana NP, Vatoharanana, evergreen rain forest, 21°16'42.2"S, 47°26'18.2"E, 1000 m a.s.l., sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 3 Oct. 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. paraspinosa (4), O. perpusilla (1), O. spinosa (3), O. striata (32), A. vestita (7), P. baloghorum (31), P. paracrispus (1), N. echinus (1), N. quasisimilis (2), N. lineatus (16), A. (H.) mahunkai (1), N. similis (1), A. (A.) primus (17)

MAG-202, Ranomafana NP, Ambatolahidimy, evergreen rain forest, 21°15'40.4"S, 47°25'16.5"E, 1017 m a.s.l., sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 27 Sept. 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (1), I. paulyi (6), N. zebrus (1)

MAG-205, Ranomafana NP, evergreen rain forest, 21°14'57.2"S, 47°25'14.7"E, 1038 m a.s.l., sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 29 Sept. 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (5), A. vestita (7), M. stratissima (1), M. tropica (3)

MAG-073, Ranomafana NP, 21°14'51.8"S, 47°24'12.1"E, 1065 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting sample of litter in ravine along road, 14 April 2011, leg. P. Banar

O. mahunkai (5), O. striata (9), A. rustica (4), P. lentulus (1), A. (H.) stilifer (1)

MAG-074, Ranomafana NP, 21°14'50.8"S, 47°24'12.7"E, 1067 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting sample of forest litter in shallow ravine, 14 April 2011, leg. P. Banar

O. striata (4)

MAG-207, Ranomafana NP, evergreen rain forest, 21°15'10.3"S, 47°25'01.2"E, 1077 m a.s.l., sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 1 Oct. 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (1), P. baloghorum (8), P. pygmaeus (1), N. similis (7), N. quasisimilis (14), N. micidus (14), A. (H.) mahunkai (3), A. (A.) primus (1)

MAG-007, Ranomafana NP, 21°14'51"S, 47°24'13"E, 1079 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, litter sifting, 16-18 Nov. XI.2010, leg. P. Banar

O. mahunkai (11), O. striata (ca 85), I. javensis (1), I. paulyi (11), A. paradikra (6), A. vestita (9), A. rustica (11), N. similis (1)

MAG-072, Ranomafana NP, 21°14'21.2"S, 47°23'35.9"E, 1105 m a.s.l., light secondary forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 14 April 2011, leg. P. Banar

O. striata (9), I. paulyi (23), N. similis (1), A. (H.) mahunkai (1)

MAG-083, Ranomafana NP, 21°14'21.2"S, 47°23'35.9"E, 1105 m a.s.l., light secondary forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 16 April 2011, leg. P. Banar

O. striata (12), I. paulyi (14), I. tripartita (1), A. rustica (1), P. baloghorum (3), N. similis (8), A. (H.) mahunkai (1)

MAG-022, Ranomafana NP, 21°15'51,3"S, 47°24'09,1"E, 1118 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 15 April 2011, leg. P. Banar and R. Raveloson

O. mahunkai (1), O. striata (19), I. paulyi (2), P. anonymus (1), A. inelegans (1), N. reticularis (6), N. similis (4)

MAG-084, Ranomafana NP, 21°14'5132"S, 47°24'09.1"E, 1118 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 16 April 2011, leg. P. Banar

O. mahunkai (3), N. echinus (1)

MAG-016, Ranomafana NP, 1125 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting sample of forest litter on old road, 16 April 2011, leg. P. Banar

A. ardua (1), A. refracta (1), P. crispus (2)

MAG-210, Ranomafana NP, Vatoharanana, evergreen rain forest, 21°16'59.7"S, 47°25'30.3"E, 1126 m a.s.l., sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 5 Oct. 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (23), O. paraspinosa (3), O. spinosa (1), P. anonymus (1), P. baloghorum (4), N. liratus (15), A. (H.) mahunkai (1)

MAG-085, Ranomafana NP, 21°14'21.5"S, 47°23'42.0"E, 1135 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 16 April 2011, leg. P. Banar

O. mahunkai (2), O. striata (3)

MAG-082, Ranomafana NP, 21°14'57.2"S, 47°24'22.9"E, 1138 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 16 April 2011, leg. R. Raveloson and L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. mahunkai (2), O. striata (46), I. paulyi (2), A. rustica (4), P. baloghorum (1)

MAG-077, Ranomafana NP, 21°14'58.6"S, 47°24'23.9"E, 1158 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 5 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. mahunkai (12), O. striata (7), A. rustica (1)

MAG-079, Ranomafana NP, 21°15'13.5"S, 47°24'09.8"E, 1158 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 16 April 2011, leg. P. Banar, R. Raveloson and L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (2), P. baloghorum (2), N. echinus (4)

MAG-209, Ranomafana NP, Vatoharanana, evergreen rain forest, 21°17'33.6"S, 47°25'57.6"E, 1163 m a.s.l., sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 4 Oct. 2012, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (8), E. (E.) netron (1), P. anonymus (2), P. baloghorum (12), N. echinus (1), N. inusitatus (2), N. quasisimilis (20), N. obliquus (1), N. lineatus (1), N. liratus (1), A. (A.) primus (1)

MAG-076, Ranomafana NP, 21°15'05.5"S, 47°24'29.3"E, 1167 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 15 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O. mahunkai (2), P. baloghorum (3)

MAG-080, Ranomafana NP, 21°15'08.4"S, 47°24'33.1"E, 1182 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 16 April 2011, leg. R. Raveloson and L.S. Rahanitriniaina

M. tropica (1), P. baloghorum (3), N. parasomalicus (3), A. (H.) mahunkai (2)

MAG-081, Ranomafana NP, 21°15'06.6"S, 47°24'31.0"E, 1197 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 16 April 2011, leg. R. Raveloson and L.S.Rahanitriniaina

O. striata (1), I. paulyi (1), M. striatissima (2), P. anonymus (1), P. baloghorum (1), N. echinus (2), N. inusitatus (2), A (H.) mahunkai (1)

MAG-078, Ranomafana NP, 21°13'03.6"S, 47°22'02.9"E, 1198 m a.s.l., Amboditanimena village environs, secondary forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 15 April 2011, leg. P. Banar, R. Raveloson

O. mahunkai (6), O. striata (2), A. paradikra (1), P. ranomafaensis (1), N. similis (2)

MAG-075, Ranomafana NP, 21°15'07.7"S, 47°24'31.4"E, 1198 m a.s.l., primary tropical rain forest, sifting sample of forest litter, 15 April 2011, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina

O mahunkai (3), O. striata (10), I. paulyi (1), A. rustica (1), A. (H.) mahunkai (1)

Totally – 29 samples: O. mahunkai (580), O. paraspinosa (7), O. perpusilla (1), O. spinosa (4), O. striata (356), I. javensis (1), I. paulyi (60), I. tripartita (3), E. (E.) netron (1), A. ardua (7), A. paradikra (8), A. refracta (4), A. rustica (26), A. vestita (52), M. stratissima (3), M. tropica (7), P. anonymus (5), P. baloghorum (72), P. crispus (2), P. lentulus (1), P. paracrispus (1), P. pygmaeus (1), P. ranomafaensis (1), H. paratryssos (1), A. inelegans (1), N. echinus (10), N. inusitatus (4), N. lineatus (17), N. liratus (16), N. micidus (14), N. obliquus (1), N. parasomalicus (3), N. quasisimilis (36), N. reticularis (6), N. similis (24), N. zebrus (1), A. (H.) mahunkai (11), A. (H.) stilifer (1), A. (A.) primus (19), A. (A.) striculus (1)

8. Andranomena Special Reserve

MAG-255, Andranomena Special Reserve, 20°09'18.6"S, 44°30'20.9"E, 29 m a.s.l., Circuit Andranohazo, dry deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 2 Feb. 2013, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

A. (H.) vitrinus (1)

MAG-259, Andranomena Special Reserve, 20°08'53.8"S, 44°31'41.8"E, 52 m a.s.l., Circuit Trois Lac, dry deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 3 Feb. 2013, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

A. sculptilis (4)

Totally – 2 samples:

A. sculptilis (4), A. (H.) vitrinus (1)

9. Zombitse National Park

MAG-234, Zombitse NP, 22°53'06.0"S, 44°41'55.4"E, 785 m a.s.l., Circuit Lobo, dry seasonal deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 24 Jan. 2013, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

M. (M.) africana (1)

MAG-240, Zombitse NP, 22°52'43.8"S, 44°41'36.5"E, 807 m a.s.l., Circuit Mandresy, dry seasonal deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 25 Jan. 2013, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

A. ardua (2), A. (H.) vitrinus (1)

MAG-247, Zombitse NP, 22°52'38.1"S, 44°42'48.6"E, 823 m a.s.l., Miliokakely, dry seasonal deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 28 Jan. 2013, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

N. micidus (2)

MAG-249, Zombitse NP, 22°52'44.2"S, 44°42'36.7"E, 832 m a.s.l., Miliokakely, dry seasonal deciduous forest, sifting of forest leaf litter sample, 28 Jan. 2013, leg. L.S. Rahanitriniaina and E.M. Rabotoson

M. (M.) africana (1)

Totally – 4 samples:

M. (M.) africana (2), A. ardua (2), N. micidus (2), A. (H.) vitrinus (1)



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Article editorial history

Date received:
2016-04-20
Date accepted:
2016-07-06
Date published:
2016-12-14

Edited by:
Kreiter, Serge

(CC BY 4.0)
© 2017 Niedbala, Wojciech

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