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The missing stase in spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae): when the adult is not the imago

Andre, H.M. and Van Impe, G.

2012 - Volume: 52 Issue: 1 pages: 3-16

DOI: 10.1051/acarologia/20122038
Date received: 2011-08-10, Date accepted: 2012-02-10, Date published: 2012-03-30
(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) © 2012 Andre, H.M. and Van Impe, G.

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Tetranychus urticae; ontogeny; ontogenetic trajectory; paedogenesis; stase; state; instar; respiration
Apart from a calyptostatic prelarva, the ontogeny of spider mites is limited to one six-legged immature followed by three eight-legged instars. The usage consists in naming them: larva, protonymph, deutonymph and adult. In this study, the "missing stase" and different associated hypotheses are explored using diverse approaches: light microscopy, electronic microscopy, comparative chaetotaxy, ontogenetic trajectories, and interspecific comparisons. It turns out that the imago (new name for the last stase) is missing in Tetranychus urticae and that its post-embryonic development may be summarized as follows: prelarva (calyptostase), larva (six-legged stase), protonymph (eight-legged stase), deutonymph (eight-legged stase), tritonymph (with paedogenesis, i.e. precocious development of sexual maturity). The respiratory role of the prelarva is emphasized. The current terminology of post-embryonic development is confusing as it pertains to three approaches: the state or form description, the instar standard and the stase paradigm.

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Photos: Varroa destructor (Varroidae) on a honey bee. Low temperature -Scanning electron microscopy photograph. Material collected and fixed for LT-SEM: J. Pettis, USDA-ARS-Bee Lab. and R. Ochoa, USDA-ARS-SEL; LT-SEM photo: E. Erbe and C. Pooley, USDA-ARS-CEMU © USDA; Petrobia harti (Tetranychidae) © INRA - Alain Migeon; Dermanyssus gallinae (Dermanysssidae) © Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon - Lise Roy; Adult Ixodes sp. (Ixodidae) engorging on an Atlantic puffin Fratercula arctica © Andy Darrington; Panonychus ulmi (Tetranychidae): hatching of a winter egg © Université de Lausanne - Centre de microscopie électronique - Cazelles

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