Laboratory evaluation of neem formulations with and without additive against the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae KochDimetry, N.Z.; Amer, S.A.A. and Saber, S.A.
2008 - Volume: 48 Issue: 3-4 pages: 171-176
Date accepted: 2008-10, Date published: 2009-05-29
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Keywords: toxicological biological activity; Neem Azal T/S; T/S Fort; Tetranychus urticae
Neem Azal T/S (commercial formulation of Neem seed kernel extract) was tested for its efficacy as a deterrent, toxicant or growth inhibitor against the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. Addition of T/S Fort increased its effect on mite females and eggs. Neem Azal T/S with T/S Fort at the ratio of 1:2 showed the highest acaricidal activity compared with the other formulations tested. Newly emerged females sprayed with the median concentration (0.086%) of Neem Azal T/S induced a serious chronic effect on their biotic potential. A high significant reduction in the egg production with an increase in percent of female sterility and a significant decrease in longevity were recorded. However, egg hatchability was slightly reduced while durations of immature stages were significantly increased.
Varroa destructor (Varroidae) on a honey bee. Low temperature -Scanning electron microscopy photograph.
Material collected and fixed for LT-SEM: J. Pettis, USDA-ARS-Bee Lab. and R. Ochoa, USDA-ARS-SEL;
LT-SEM photo: E. Erbe and C. Pooley, USDA-ARS-CEMU © USDA;
Petrobia harti (Tetranychidae) © INRA - Alain Migeon;
Dermanyssus gallinae (Dermanysssidae) © Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon – Lise Roy;
Adult Ixodes sp. (Ixodidae) engorging on an Atlantic puffin Fratercula arctica © Andy Darrington;
Panonychus ulmi (Tetranychidae): hatching of a winter egg © Université de Lausanne – Centre de microscopie électronique – Cazelles
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