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Origin and classification of the Ixodides (ticks) within the Parasitiformes Reuter, 1909 (Acarina)

Karg, W. and Shorlemmer, A.

2008 - Volume: 48 Issue: 3-4 pages: 123-135

Date accepted: 2008-08, Date published: 2009-05-29
(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) © 2008 Karg, W. and Shorlemmer, A.

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Keywords
phylogenetic methods; predispositions; behaviour; food; systematics; cladogram
Abstract
Ixodides and Uropodina have a number of synapomorphies in common, which are not present in other groups of the Parasitiformes. Anatomicmorphological trends as well as behavioural peculiarities occurring in the carnivorous Uropodina hint to a transition towards parasitism. In fact, feed deficit can lead to parasitism in Uropodina. Based on synapomorphies, Ixodides and Uropodina are combined as Margotrichina n. cohors, Trigynaspina and Sejides as Antennophorina (n. comb.). Those two taxa form a monophyletic group whose sister group are the Gamasina.

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Photos: Varroa destructor (Varroidae) on a honey bee. Low temperature -Scanning electron microscopy photograph. Material collected and fixed for LT-SEM: J. Pettis, USDA-ARS-Bee Lab. and R. Ochoa, USDA-ARS-SEL; LT-SEM photo: E. Erbe and C. Pooley, USDA-ARS-CEMU © USDA; Petrobia harti (Tetranychidae) © INRA - Alain Migeon; Dermanyssus gallinae (Dermanysssidae) © Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon - Lise Roy; Adult Ixodes sp. (Ixodidae) engorging on an Atlantic puffin Fratercula arctica © Andy Darrington; Panonychus ulmi (Tetranychidae): hatching of a winter egg © Université de Lausanne - Centre de microscopie électronique - Cazelles
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